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- Author or Editor: Jonathan Kressin x
The growing volatility of the climate, and its potential impact on crop production, has prompted several physiologic and genetic analyses under high-temperature conditions. Tomato is grown in warm temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of the world, where daytime and nighttime temperatures regularly exceed the optimum temperatures for tomato growth during the summer, exerting stress on tomato production. Recent trends indicate more frequent extreme summer temperatures, which may grow even greater in the future, impacting crop growth. The objective of the current study was to estimate the heritability of flower and fruit set ability of tomato populations under heat stress conditions so that improvement for these traits can be planned. We developed two tomato populations using contrasting parents from the North Carolina State University (NCSU) tomato breeding program and the World Vegetable Center (formerly Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center). The F2 and F2-derived F3 families (F2:3 populations) were grown at the Piedmont Research Station (PRS), Salisbury, NC, where summer growing temperatures are warmer than optimum for tomato production. Heritability estimates of the number of flowers per cluster, the number of fruit per cluster, and fruit set (measured as a percentage) were determined in two populations of tomato—NC10137 (NC714 × CLN-2413A) and NC10418 [230 HS-1(99) × NC 1CS]—by regression analysis using the offspring-on-parents method. Broad-sense heritability across the traits was high (47.2%–100%), whereas narrow-sense heritability was very low (1.4%–22.5%). There was a positive correlation between the number of flowers and the number of fruit per cluster (r = 0.50, P < 0.05), which was in close agreement with previous findings. These findings will be useful in investigating the genetic control of heat stress tolerance in tomato and in facilitating crop improvement in the future.
Bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are responsible for widespread yield losses, especially in humid growing environments. Chromosome 11 of tomato contains genes that modulate resistance to several prominent tomato pathogens, including bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas spp., gray leaf spot caused by Stemphylium spp., Fusarium wilt caused by race 2 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) caused by begomoviruses. Major resistance loci are quantitative trait locus 11 (QTL-11) and Xv3/Rx4 for bacterial spot, Sm for gray leaf spot, I2 for Fusarium wilt, and Ty-2 for TYLCV. Marker-assisted selection was used to select for rare recombination events that combined these resistance loci into a linked cassette that can be inherited together in future crosses. A pedigree breeding strategy was used with marker-assisted selection and used to identify a novel coupling of Xv3/Rx4 and Ty-2. Recombination between the two genes was estimated as 0.056 cM, demonstrating that effective combinations of resistance can be established using publicly available germplasm. Progeny from the recombinant plants were screened using inoculated seedling trials to confirm resistance. The recombinants identified maintained resistance levels similar to the resistant controls. Trial results suggest that the trait markers on chromosome 11 are tightly linked to the respective resistance loci and are effective for selecting plants with resistance to the target diseases.