Effects of BA, Promalin and Dikegulac-sodium on frond number and overall growth in Boston Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.) were studies. Four weeks after transplanting, fern liners were sprayed with aqueous solutions of BA, Promalin and dikegulac-sodium. Chemical concentrations of BA and promalin ranged from 0 to 150 mg. liter-1 at 50 mg. liter-1 increments. Chemical concentrations of dikegulac-sodium ranged for 0 to 750 mg.liter-1 at 250 mg.liter-1 increments. Chemical treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 6 replications. BA and Promalin significantly increased the number of fronds, average frond length, leaf area and dry weight as the concentration of the chemicals increased. In contrast, dikegulac-sodium significantly suppressed the average frond length, leaf area and dry weight when compared to the control. Similarly to BA and Promalin, dikegulac-sodium increased the number of fronds as the concentration of the chemical increased.
Johnny Carter and Sauveur Mahotiere
Johnny Carter* and Johnson Clarence
During Fall 2003, a study similar to that of Fall 2002 was conducted to determine the effect of crown manipulation on shoot production in four cultivars of daylily. Three crown manipulation treatments: (1) the shoot cut back two centimeters from crown, (2) the shoot cut back to the crown, and (3) shoot cut back to the crown and scooped out were compared to a control. Four daylily cultivars, `Bull Durham', `Amber Lamp', `Angus McLeod', and `Alvatine Taylor' were used in this study. After eight weeks of observations, the results showed that the cut back to crown treatment caused a significant increase in the number of shoots when compared to the control and other two treatments. Shoot production for the cultivar `Angus McLeod' was significantly better than the other cultivars. Results obtained for Fall 2003 study were similar to that of Fall 2002. These results imply that cutting the shoots back to the crown in some daylily cultivars could possibly be used to enhance multiplication of daylilies during propagation.
Johnny Carter and Sauveur Mahotiere
During the Fall of 1993, four commercial growth retardants (B-nine, Cycocel, A-rest and Bonzi) were compared for their effectiveness in controlling the growth and development of three ornamental cabbage cultivars (white, red and pink) and two flowering ornamental kale cultivars (frizzy red and red peacock). Two weeks after transplanting; seedling of each cultivar were sprayed with aqueous solutions of the four commercial growth retardants. Treatments for each cultivar were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 6 replications. Plant height, plant width and dry weight were the parameters used to measure growth and development. Results showed that all the growth retardants except for cycocel significantly affected growth and development without any effect on head formation and color development. Bonzi caused the greatest growth suppression.
Johnny Carter and Seema Dhir
A plant regeneration protocol has been successfully developed to mass propagate daylilies. Experiments were conducted to determine source (BA, KN, and ZT) and concentration (0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mg/L) of cytokinins and sugars (glucose, surcose, and maltose) to be used in the medium. Studies were also conducted to determine the influence of flower bud size (5, 10, 15, and 20 mm) as explant source. Based on results from these studies a protocol for propagating daylilies was developed. The procedure involved using filament explants from daylily flower buds ranging in sizes from 5 to 10 mm. The filaments when cultured on MS+BAP (3.0 mg/L)+ IAA (0.5 mg/L) medium,formed globular somatic embryos in 4 weeks. Complete plants were regenerated within a period of 6 to 7 months. Upon acclimatization, 100% of the tissue culture generated raised plants survived under greenhouse conditions.
B. Bejie Herrin and Johnny Carter
A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the influence of four stem girdling methods and the use of three covering materials on air-layering propagation of rubber plants (Ficus elastica L.). Stem girdling methods consisted of a control, slit, copper wire, and debarking. Black plastic, clear plastic, and aluminum foil were the covering materials used. Results from this study showed that all of the covering materials responded similarly when compared to the control. All of the stem girdling treatments stimulate the number of roots, root growth, and root fresh weight when compared to the control. However, the debarking treatment produced the greatest number of roots, root length, and root fresh weight.
Johnny Carter and Edwin K. Mathews
Paclobutrazol and three commercial growth retardants (B-nine, Cycocel and A-rest) were compared for their effectiveness in controlling the growth of five bedding plant species ('Yellow Boy' marigold, `Blue Blazer' ageratum, `Dreamland Orange' zinnia, `Better Boy' tomato and `Black Beauty' eggplant). Results showed that growth suppression depended on the treatment and species tested. All of the growth retardants suppressed the growth of `Yellow Boy' marigold. Growth of `Blue Blazer' ageratum was suppressed by all the treatments except for Cycocel. With `Dreamland Orange' zinnia, B-nine and Cycocel suppressed growth while Paclobutrazol and A-rest did not have any effect. All of the treatments except A-rest suppressed the growth of `Better Boy' tomato and `Black Beauty' eggplant.
Johnny Carter and Robert S. Pile
In the paper “Using Heat from Power Plant Condenser Cooling Water for Greenhouse Tomato Production” by Johnny Carter and Robert S. Pile [HortScience 17(l):74-76. 1982] there was an error of geographic location in the captions for Figures 2 and 3 and in the headings for Tables 1 and 2. The greenhouse waste heat experiments were conducted at the TV A waste heat greenhouse in Athens, Alabama, not Athens, Georgia, as was printed.
Johnny Carter, Bharat P. Singh, and Wayne Whitehead
Two greenhouse studies (1990 and 1991) were conducted to evaluate the effect of dikegulac (Atrinal) and benzyladenine (ProShear) on frond initiation and vegetative growth of Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata L.). Four weeks after transplanting, fern liners were sprayed with aqueous solutions of dikegulac and benzyladenine (BA). Chemical concentrations of dikegulac were 0, 250, 500, or 750 mg·L–1 and those of BA were 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg·L–1. The effect of dikegulac and BA on number of shoots, frond length, leaf area, and dry weight were measured. Dikegulac stimulated shoot initiation and increased leaf area and dry weight without affecting frond length. BA reduced frond length and its effect on shoot initiation, leaf area and dry weight varied from one time to another. This study suggests the potential use for dikegulac in improving the appearance and aesthetic quality of Boston fern.
Johnny Carter, Bharat P. Singh, and Wayne Whitehead
Greenhouse studies conducted in 1990 and 1991 evaluated the influence of dikegulac and benzyladenine on frond initiation and vegetative growth of Boston fern [Nephrolepsis exaltata (L.) Schott `Compacta']. Four weeks after transplanting, fern liners were sprayed with aqueous solutions of dikegulac (0, 250, 500, or 750 mg·L–1) or benzyladenine (BA; 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg·L–1). The effect of dikegulac and BA on the number of shoots, frond length, leaf area, and dry weight was measured. Dikegulac stimulated shoot initiation and increased leaf area and dry weight without affecting frond length. BA reduced frond length and had no effect on shoot initiation and dry weight. This study suggests dikegulac has potential to improve the appearance and aesthetic quality of Boston fern. Chemical names used: 2,3:4,6-bis-0-(1-methylethylidene)-α-l-Xylo-2 hexulofuranosonic acid (dikegulac); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (benzyladenine).
Johnny Carter, Diondre Palmer, and Lianghong Chen
During Summer 2004, a study was conducted to determine the effect of two types of fertilizers on the growth and development of tissue-cultured daylilies transferred to the greenhouse. Peters 20–20–20 water-soluble fertilizer and a slow-release fertilizer were the two fertilizers evaluated. Peters 20–20–20 fertilizer was used at 0 (control), 50, 100, and 200 mg·L–1 rates. The slow release fertilizer was used at 2.5 g per 10.2 cm pot. Each treatment was replicated four times in a randomized complete-block design. After 6 weeks of growth, the results showed that, when compared to the control, all treatments except for 200 mg·L–1 caused a significant increase in root growth. Shoot growth was significantly increased by the 100 mg·L–1 treatment, while the 200 mg·L–1 and slow-release treatments suppressed shoot growth. Similar to root and shoot growth, the 100 mg·L–1 treatment caused a significant increase in fresh weight, while the 200 mg·L–1 and slow-release treatments caused a reduction. These results imply that the 100 mg·L–1 Peters 20–20–20 fertilizer treatment is the best treatment for maximum growth and development of tissue-cultured daylilies transferred to the greenhouse.