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Teryl R. Roper and John S. Klueh

The dwarfing potential of apple interstems has long been recognized. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between the dwarfing effect of apple interstems and interstem starch concentration. In 1981 apple trees with P2 or P22 interstems on clonal Antonovka rootstock using Jerseymac or Starkspurmac as scion were planted. In 1989 and 1990 core samples from the interstems and root samples were analyzed for starch concentration. Roots always had higher starch concentrations than interstems. In the spring, P22 interstems had higher starch levels than P2 interstems, but in the fall the reverse was found. No difference in starch concentration was found between the Antonovka rootstock under the same interstem. However, root starch concentration was more stable under P22 than P2. Further, roots under P22 were lower in starch in the fall than in the spring. This suggests that P22, the more dwarfing interstem, may interfere with the transport of carbohydrates through the trunk, which may be a factor in dwarfing.

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Teryl R. Roper and John S. Klueh

The sources of photosynthate for fruit growth in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) can be spatially partitioned as new growth, old leaves and woody stems, or adjoining uprights. New growth, l-year-old leaves, or both were removed at the time of fruit set and following fruit set. Removing new growth at the time of fruit set reduced fruit set, fruit count, and yield. Removing old leaves at fruit set generally did not reduce fruit set, fruit count, or yield. Removing both often had an additional effect. Removing new leaves after fruit set did not affect fruit set or count, but did reduce fruit size. Removing old leaves after fruit set did not reduce fruit set, fruit count, or size. These data suggest that new growth is an important source of photosynthate for fruit set.

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Teryl R. Roper and John S. Klueh

The source of photosynthate for developing cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fruit can be partitioned spatially among new growth acropetal to fruit, 1-year-old leaves basipetal to fruit, and adjacent uprights along the same runner. Cranberry uprights were labeled with 14CO2 in an open system with constant activity during flowering or fruit development. When new growth acropetal to fruit was labeled, substantial activity was found in flowers or fruit. Little activity was found in basipetal tissues. When 1-year-old basipetal leaves were labeled, most of the activity remained in the labeled leaves, with some activity in flowers or fruit. Almost no labeled C moved into acropetal tissues. When new growth of adjacent nonfruiting uprights on the same runner were labeled, almost no activity moved into the fruiting upright. These data confirm that new growth acropetal to developing flowers and fruit is the primary source of photosynthate for fruit development. Furthermore, they show that during the short time studied in our experiment, almost no C moved from one upright to another.