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  • Author or Editor: John Rogers x
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Nicotiana transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was fixed for 1 h in 1% glutaraldehyde and 4% formaldehyde. Ultrathin sections were collected on nickel grids. Grids were treated with polyclonal anti-IPTase antibody raised in rabbits and visualized with 10 nm, protein-A–labeled colloidal gold. Gold label was found throughout the cell, including the cell wall, vacuole, rough ER, and organelles. Cell wall and vacuole labeling appears to be due to non-specific binding and is greatly reduced by a BSA block. Mitochondria and chloroplasts also showed gold label, but not greater than established background levels. Labeling above background levels on the rough ER, free polysomes, and further label in the free cytoplasm indicate a cytoplasmic role for IPTase.

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Nicotiana transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was fixed in 1% gluterdehyde and 4% formaldehyde for 1 h. Grids were treated with polygonal anti-IpTase antibody raised in rabbits and visualized with 10 nm protein-A-labeled colloidal gold. Initial localization was performed on Nicotiana transformed with the ipt gene under the control of the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus. Colloidal gold was found throughout the cell, including the cell wall, vacuole, and rough ER. Cell wall and vacuole labeling appears to be due to nonspecific binding and is greatly reduced by a BSA block. Colloidal gold label on rough ER provides preliminary evidence that translation occurs here rather than on free polysomes. General reaction throughout the cell indicates cytoplasmic activity of the enzyme. Future research will attempt to localize IPTase in wild-type Nicotiana and in plants transformed with the ipt gene under the control of the hsp 70 heat shock promoter.

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A problem in immunocytochemistry is obtaining acceptable fixation of tissue while retaining antigenicity. Two concentrations (1% and 2.5%) of glutaraldehyde, with and without secondary fixation in 1% Osmium Tetroxide (OsO4) and varying fixation times were used.

Fixation in 1% glutanddehyde for 3 h was adequate to preserve the tissue. Some loss of fine structure was visible under an electron microscope. A solution of 2.5% glutaraldehyde was more effective in preserving fine structure. At 2 h fixation the tissue was well preserved and only slight loss of tine detail was observed. A longer fixation results in better ultrastructural preservation, but can cause loss of antigenicity.

OsO4 fixes lipids and acts as an electron dense stain. OsO4 has a negative effect on antigenicity. The use of OsO4 had little effect upon the preservation of ultrastructural detail and-did not improve staining; therefore, it was omitted in later fixations. Based on this experimental evidence, initial localization experiments will utilize tissue fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde for 3 h.

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Muskmelon [Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group)] fruit sugar content is directly related to potassium (K)-mediated phloem transport of sucrose into the fruit. However, during fruit growth and maturation, soil fertilization alone is often inadequate (due to poor root uptake and competitive uptake inhibition from calcium and magnesium) to satisfy the numerous K-dependent processes, such as photosynthesis, phloem transport, and fruit growth. Experiments were conducted during Spring 2003 and 2004 to determine if supplemental foliar K applications during the fruit growth and maturation period would alleviate this apparent inadequate K availability in orange-flesh muskmelon `Cruiser'. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized throughout the study with a soil-applied N-P-K fertilizer. Flowers were hand pollinated and only one fruit per plant was allowed to develop. Starting at 3 to 5 days after fruit set, and up to 3 to 5 days prior to fruit maturity (full slip), entire plants, including the fruit, were sprayed with a glycine amino acid-complexed potassium (potassium metalosate, 24% K) solution, diluted to 4.0 mL·L-1. Three sets of plants were sprayed either weekly (once per week), biweekly (once every 2 weeks) or not sprayed (control). Fruit from plants receiving supplemental foliar K matured on average 2 days earlier than those from control plants. In general, there were no differences in fruit maturity or quality aspects between the weekly and biweekly treatments except for fruit sugar and beta-carotene concentrations, which were significantly higher in the weekly compared to the biweekly or control treatments. Supplemental foliar K applications also resulted in significantly firmer fruit with higher K, soluble solids, total sugars, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and beta-carotene concentrations than fruit from control plants. These results demonstrate that carefully timed foliar K nutrition can alleviate the developmentally induced K deficiency effects on fruit quality and marketability.

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Muskmelonfruit[Cucumis melo L. (Retiulatus Goup)] sugar content is related to potassium (K)-mediated phloem loading and unloading of sucrose into the fruit. During fruit growth and maturation, soil fertility is often inadequate (due to poor root uptake) to satisfy the demand for K. Potassium uptake also competes with the uptake of Ca and Mg, two essential minerals needed for melon fruit membrane structure, function and postharvest shelf-life. Supplemental foliar-applied K could alleviate this problem especially during the critical fruit growth/maturation period. We conducted experiments to determine the effects of timing of supplemental foliar K applications on fruit quality and health attributes of orange-flesh muskmelon `Cruiser'. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with a regular soil-applied N–P–K fertilizer throughout the study. Entire plants, including the fruit were sprayed with a solution of a novel glycine amino acid-complexed potassium (Potassium Metalosate, 24% K), diluted to 4.0 mL·L-1, 3 to 5 d after anthesis (fruit set) and up to 3 to 5 d prior to abscission (full-slip). Three sets of plants were either sprayed weekly, or bi-weekly or not sprayed (control). Fruit from plants receiving supplemental foliar K matured on average 2 days earlier, and had significantly higher fruit K concentrations, soluble solids, total sugars, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), beta-carotene, and were firmer than fruit from control plants. In general, there were few differences in fruit quality aspects between bi-weekly or weekly treatments. The data demonstrate that fruit quality and marketability as well as some of the developmentally induced K deficiency effects can be alleviated through foliar nutrition.

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Commercially available biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith were tested for their efficacy in controlling fusarium root rot in potted asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) seedlings. High and low concentrations of Fusarium oxysporum (Schlect.) emend. Snyd. & Hans. f. sp. asparagi Cohen & Heald (FOA) were combined with G. intraradices and/or T. harzianum treatments. In both experiments included in this study, T. harzianum and G. intraradices alone and in combination effectively reduced root rot caused by FOA when asparagus seedlings were grown in low levels of FOA-infested medium. When seedlings were grown in high levels of FOA-infested medium, the combination of T. harzianum + G. intraradices significantly increased dry shoot mass and limited root rot compared to the control.

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Renovation is an opportune time for golf courses to address annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) weed populations. Dazomet (tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione) is an effective fumigant, but without a tarp cover, it is only effective at the highest labeled rates. Fraise mowing cultivation could be used to help remove surface material and allow practitioners to effectively fumigate at lower rates. In Summer 2018 and Summer 2019, two cool-season fairway renovation experiments were conducted in East Lansing, MI. The objective of these experiments was to assess annual bluegrass control and creeping bentgrass establishment following dazomet applications to fraise mowed surfaces. In the first experiment (fraise mowing surface disturbance experiment), dazomet was applied at a fixed rate (294 kg·ha−1) to fraise mowed plots at varying levels of surface disturbance (0%, 15%, 50%, and 100%) to a depth of 1.9 cm. In the second experiment (dazomet rate experiment), fraise mowing removed 100% of surface material at a depth of 1.9 cm and dazomet was applied at five rates (0, 294, 588, 147 + 147, and 294 + 294 kg·ha−1). Both experiments were conducted on two soils (sand topdressed vs. native) and evaluated two methods of fumigant incorporation (solid-tine cultivation vs. tillage). Five days after treatments were applied, plots were seeded with ‘Pure Select’ creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). The level of fraise mowing surface disturbance had no effect on annual bluegrass emergence, and creeping bentgrass cover was poorest in native soils at the highest levels of surface disturbance. In the dazomet rate experiment, dazomet applied twice at 294 kg·ha−1 provided the most consistent control of annual bluegrass. With the exception to single applications of 294 in 2018, all dazomet treatments allowed for greater creeping bentgrass establishment than the nontreated control. Fraise mowing cultivation may simplify the removal of surface material from large areas; however, even when combined with dazomet applied at the highest rates, it fails to provide complete annual bluegrass control.

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Drain tile installation into a native-soil athletic field and subsequent sand topdressing applications are cost-effective alternatives to complete field renovation. However, if cumulative topdressing rates exceed root system development, surface stability may be compromised. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of cumulative topdressing, over a compacted sandy loam soil, on the fall wear tolerance and surface shear strength of a kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)–perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) stand. Research was initiated in East Lansing, MI, on 10 Apr. 2007. A well-graded, high-sand-content root zone (90.0% sand, 7.0% silt, and 3.0% clay) was topdressed at a 0.25-inch depth [2.0 lb/ft2 (dry weight)] per application, providing cumulative topdressing depths of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 inches applied from 11 July to 15 Aug. 2007. Fall traffic was applied twice weekly to all treatments from 10 Oct. to 3 Nov. 2007. In 2008, topdressing applications and traffic, as described earlier, were repeated on the same experimental plots. Results obtained from this research suggest that the 0.5-inch topdressing depth applied over a 5-week period in the summer will provide improved shoot density and surface shear strength in the subsequent fall. Results also suggest that topdressing rates as thick as 4.0 inches accumulated over a 2-year period will provide increased shoot density, but diminished surface shear strength.

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A major concern with many creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) putting greens is annual bluegrass (Poa annua) invasion. The study was designed to garner data regarding the depth of soil removal needed to reduce annual bluegrass seedling emergence in a newly renovated putting green. Research was conducted in different seasons (summer and fall) to evaluate seedling emergence across five soil removal depths in four sampling sites. Cores were collected from four golf courses in southeastern Michigan, subdivided into different soil removal depths, potted in sterile soil media, and established in a growth chamber. Results suggest that excavating soil to a depth of 1.0 inch or, more prudently, to a 1.5-inch depth could minimize annual bluegrass competition in a creeping bentgrass putting green. Annual bluegrass emergence was observed to be greatest in the upper soil depths (0.5–1.5 inches) in both seasons, with minimal emergence (<1.1 plant/0.2 ft2) below the 2.0-inch soil removal depth treatment.

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Previous research has shown that maple (Acer spp.) leaf litter resulted in fewer common dandelions (Taraxacum officinale) when mulched into established turfgrass. However, the leaves used in that research may have contained herbicide residues and were separated by genus, not species. Our research compared the effects of pesticide-free mulched maple and oak (Quercus spp.) leaves on dandelion populations in an established kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) stand maintained as a residential lawn on sandy loam soil. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of maple or oak leaf mulches as an organic common dandelion control method and to identify which maple species and rates (particle size and rate per unit area) provided the most effective control. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 × 2 + 1 factorial, with tree leaf species, leaf particle size, leaf application rate, and control as main factors. Leaf species were red maple (Acer rubrum), silver maple (A. saccharinum), sugar maple (A. saccharum), high sugar content sugar maple, and red oak (Quercus rubra). Particle sizes were coarse (0.4–1.0 inch2) and fine (≤0.2 inch2), and application rates were low (0.5 kg·m−2) and high (1.5 kg·m−2). Mulch applications were made in Fall 2003 and 2004 and data were collected beginning in Spring 2004 on kentucky bluegrass spring green-up, and common dandelion plant counts. The high application rate, regardless of tree genus or species, resulted in the highest green-up ratings. Common dandelion plant counts after one (2003) and two (2003 and 2004) mulch applications at the high rate showed that up to 80% and 53% reduction was achieved, respectively. Results indicate that mulching leaves regardless of genus (oak or maple) or maple species into established turfgrass as a leaf litter disposal method will increase spring green-up and contribute to a reduction in common dandelion population.

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