Spring establishment of turfgrass that is managed without herbicides is subject to weed competition, resulting in reduced turfgrass cover. The objective of this experiment was to find an acceptable method for spring turfgrass establishment without the use of pesticides. Thirty-six treatments consisting of three soil amendments combined with three turfgrass species or mixes, and four topdressings or fertilizers in a randomized complete block design were tested. Nutrient-deficient fill soil, fill soil blended with topsoil, and fill soil blended with leaf compost were used as growing media. ‘Firenza’ tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus), an 80/20 mix of ‘Nu Destiny’ kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) and ‘Nexus XD’ perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), respectively, and ‘Firefly’ hard fescue (Festuca trachyphylla) were grown with topdressings consisting of biosolids, ash-amended biosolids, 16N–12.2P–3.3K starter fertilizer, and an unfertilized control. The treatments were mowed at 3 inches about once per week. Irrigation was supplied by an overhead sprinkler system (1 inch/week). During the 2010 field study, treatments of tall fescue established in a leaf compost–amended root zone were significantly denser and had a greater percentage of cover (P ≤ 0.05) compared with all other treatments. In 2011, treatments of tall fescue established in fill soil– and leaf compost–amended soils were significantly denser and had a greater percentage of cover (P ≤ 0.05) compared with all other treatments. Kentucky bluegrass/perennial ryegrass and hard fescue treatments had significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) levels of establishment compared with tall fescue. Topdressing treatments resulted in no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in turfgrass establishment.
Decreased light quantity or quality affects the growth of turfgrass plants. Shade causes thinning of turfgrass stands and loss in surface quality. Plant changes include increased chlorophyll levels, lower soluble sugars, and loss of canopy cover. The objective of this research was to investigate if applications of foliar nitrogen and trinexapac-ethyl [4-(cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester] (TE) would result in beneficial biochemical changes in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. cv. Penncross) grown in different shaded environments. Foliar applications of three nitrogen treatments, (NH2)2CO, Ca(NO3)2, or (NH4)2SO4, were made weekly at 0.43 g N/m2. Growth regulator treatments consisted of an untreated control or TE applied biweekly at an a.i. rate of 0.057 kg·ha−1. Plots were established in full sun (FS), neutral shade (NS), and deciduous shade (DS). Chlorophyll content, soluble carbohydrates, flavonoids, clipping yield, and color were measured. Nitrogen treatments caused some variation in levels of soluble carbohydrates in shaded conditions. Chlorophyll (Chl) levels varied between TE treatments, with increased levels of chlorophyll b (Chl b) found in TE-treated plots under FS. Application of TE resulted in higher flavonoid concentrations in leaf tissue in shaded conditions. Repeated applications of (NH2)2CO significantly improved color (P = 0.05). Turfgrass managers maintaining creeping bentgrass in shade may benefit from applications of TE and (NH2)2CO.