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Two 8- to 9- month [Nutricote 20-7-10 (Type 270) and Osmocote 18-6-121 and two 12- to 14- month [Nutricote 20-7-10 (Type 360) and Osmocote 17-7-121 controlled release fertilizers were preplant incorporated into a 3:1 pine bark:peat moss medium during two potting dates (April 12 and June 6, 1991) at the rate of 1.5 kg N/m. Plant growth of two woody ornamentals, 'Green Luster' Japanese holly and 'Fashion' azalea, and monthly medium solution electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. Growth index [GI = (height + width at widest point + width perpendicular to widest point)/3] response to fertilizer treatment was species specific. Nutricote 20-7-10 (type 360) produced the largest GIs for holly, while GIs for azalea were not affected 420 days after initiation (DAI) of the test. Plants potted in April had greater GIs than those potted in June for the two plant species 420 DAI, regardless of fertilizer type. Osmocote 18-6-12 and 17-7-12 controlled release fertilizers had the greatest medium solution ECs from 90 to 180 DAI.

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Five 12- to 14- month slow release fertilizers (Osmocote 17-7-12, Sierra 16-6-10, High-N 24-4-7, Sierrablend 17-7-10, and Nutricote 16-10-10 Type 360) were incorporated into a 3:1 pine bark: peat moss potting medium at one of 4 rates (0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 kg N/m3). Plant growth of 3 azale a species, `Coral Bells' (Kurume), `Formosa' (Southern Indica), and `Pink Gumpo' (Satsuki), and monthly medium solution electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. Growth indices 180 days after applying fertilizer were greatest for plants receiving the Sierrablend and Osmocote fertilizers regardless of azalea species. Plant growth indices increased as N rate increased for the 3 azaleas, regardless of the fertilizer product. The highest media solution EC readings occurred during the first 90 days after fertilizer application for all fertilizer treatments and declined thereafter.

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Abstract

Throughout the world the nature of man has been to cluster in highly urbanized centers. The U.S. is no exception, with more than 203 million people living on less than 1% of the land mass. During the past decade this concentration of people in or near urban growth centers has continued while an increasing percentage of land area in many states has reverted to forest cover.

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Crape myrtle (Lagerstroe-mia L. × `Natchez'), live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.), and Chinese pistachio (Pistacia chinensis Bunge) were planted into a sandy loam soil directly in the field or in grow-bags. Root and top growth were measured in March and July of the second year. Some of the trees were transplanted to 20-gal (76-liter) containers in March or July and grown for 3 months. Chinese pistachio developed a poor root system in field soil and was not ready for harvest in March or July. There was no difference in height, caliper, or top fresh weight for crape myrtle. Caliper and top fresh weight were similar for live oak trees. However, live oaks grown by traditional field production methods were taller than trees produced in grow-bags. With March transplanting, both crape myrtle and live oak trees from traditional field plantings were taller than trees transplanted from grow-bags 3 months after transplanting into containers. Tree top weight, caliper, and root ratings were similar for March-transplanted crape myrtle. Live oak trees transplanted from grow-bags had similar caliper and top weight but a higher root rating. July-transplanted crape myrtle trees had similar values for all variables 3 months later. All live oaks died when transplanted from traditional field plantings to containers in July. All live oaks grown in grow-bags survived transplanting.

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Lagerstroemia × `Natchez' and Quercus virginiana were planted into a sandy loam soil in grow bags and by traditional field planting methods. After 2 years in the field, 1 sample from each of 6 replications was dug from the field in March. Root and top growth were measured. Half the remaining plants were dug and transplanted into 76 liter containers for 3 months. Growth indices were measured at this time. The remaining trees in the field were dug in July and handled similarly. Data from live oak trees showed increased height in trees produced by traditional field planting methods. No differences between planting methods were found in any other growth indices for the two species. Both crapemyrtle and live oak trees transplanted from traditional field plantings in March had greater height than trees transplanted from grow bags. However, no differences were detected for top weight, caliper or root ratings. July transplanted crapemyrtles showed no differences in any of the growth indices. Live oaks transplanted in July from traditional field plantings to containers all died with no additional growth. Grow bag transplanted oaks survived and continued to grow.

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Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch `Melrose'] and pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne. `Bradford') trees in the nursery grew more in containers designed to hold water in the lower portion. The water-holding reservoir was obtained either by placing 76-liter containers in a frame holding water to a depth of 6 cm or by using containers with drainage holes 6 cm from the bottom. Continuous waterlogging at the bottom of containers resulted in root pruning and root death in the lower portion of the containers, but roots grew well above the constantly wet zone. Fresh weight of plant tops and trunk diameters were greater after two growing seasons in the containers with water reservoirs compared to those grown in similar containers with no water reservoirs. Total root dry weight was unaffected.

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Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cyclic irrigation on leachate NO3-N concentration, container leachate volume, total effluent volume, and growth of Ilex crenata Thunb. `Compacta'. In Expt. 1, container leachate volume was reduced 34% when 13 mm of water was applied in three cycles compared to continuous irrigation of 13 mm per unit time. Forty-nine percent less container leachate volume was collected from a continuous application of 8 mm than from that of 13 mm water. In Expt. 2, container leachate volume was reduced 71% when 6 mm was applied in a single application over 30 minutes compared to 13 mm applied continuously for 1 hour. Total effluent was reduced by 14% and 10% in Expts. 1 and 2, respectively, when 13-mm irrigation was applied in three cycles compared to one continuous irrigation. Container leachate NO3-N concentrations from cyclic irrigation were generally less than leachate NO3-N concentrations from continuous irrigation treatments. The percentage of applied N leached as NO3-N ranged from 46% when 13-mm irrigation was applied in three cycles to 63% when 13-mm irrigation was applied in a single cycle. Leachate NO3-N concentration was reduced as irrigation volume was reduced from 13 to 6 mm in Expt. 2. Percentage of applied N leached as NO3-N was 63%, 56%, and 47% when 13-mm irrigation was applied in one, two, and three cycles, respectively, compared to 19%, 16%, and 15% when 6-mm irrigation was applied in one, two, and three cycles, respectively. `Compacta' holly shoot and root growth were minimally affected by cyclic irrigation or irrigation volume.

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Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are an important pest problem at ornamental tree nurseries. Available chemical treatments are not completely effective and, due to the length of the beetle dispersal period and insecticide breakdown, repeated treatments can become costly in terms of application expense and nontarget impacts. Additional options are needed to reduce application frequency and to provide an acceptable level of crop protection. Four treatments were tested using ethanol-injected eastern redbud trees at research sites in Mississippi (MS) and Tennessee (TN) over 2 years (2014–15), with the number of new ambrosia beetle galleries compared over time on 1) nontreated control trees, 2) kaolin-treated trees, 3) bifenthrin-treated trees, and 4) kaolin + bifenthrin (k + b)-treated trees. Kaolin-treated trees rapidly lost their coating after rain events and, at 6 days after treatment (DAT) in TN, no differences were detected in the number of beetle galleries between kaolin and nontreated control trees. Kaolin + bifenthrin-treated trees appeared to retain treatment residue longer, but were not better-protected than bifenthrin-treated trees at any time. Further research is needed to determine whether an adjuvant, such as a surfactant, spreader, or sticker, may enhance the modest impact offered by kaolin in our test, or if a reduction in rates of bifenthrin may be allowable.

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Abstract

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) juvenile population increased and carrot (Daucus carota L.) yield progressively decreased during eight continuous carrot crops grown over 37 months. When ‘Haifa’ and common white clovers (Trifolium repens L.) were cropped for 29 months and plowed down, two succeeding carrot crops suffered severe yield and quality losses and the juvenile nematode population in the soil in-creased greatly. However, there were significantly fewer juveniles in the soil and significantly higher yield and better quality of carrots when nematode-resistant ‘Nevada Synthetic XX’ and ‘Nevada Synthetic YY alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) and continuous cultivation preceeded the carrots.

Open Access