To identify a post-plant nematicide to control root lesion nematode [RLN (Pratylenchus penetrans)] in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a number of nematicides was tested in soil-only and plant-based experiments. In soil-only experiments, soil naturally infested with RLN was drenched with the nematicides and nematode survival was assessed 7 and 14 days after treatment. Fosthiazate and oxamyl reduced RLN recovery 92% and 52% across trials and sampling times, respectively, compared with the nontreated control. Other nematicides that resulted in moderate, and sometimes inconsistent, control of RLN were soapbark (Quillaja saponaria) saponins, 1,3-dichloropropene, and methomyl. In plant-based experiments, ‘Meeker’ red raspberry was established in pots with RLN-infested soil mixed with greenhouse soil and the nematicides were applied as soil drenches or as a foliar application. Nematode recovery and cane and root weights were quantified as measurements of nematicide toxicity and phytotoxicity, respectively. Similar to soil-only experiments, fosthiazate and oxamyl were the most effective nematicides tested in reducing RLN population densities in established red raspberry. Fosthiazate and oxamyl significantly reduced RLN per gram dry root population densities by 97% and 87%, respectively, compared with the infested, nontreated control. None of the other nematicides reduced RLN population densities compared with the infested, nontreated controls. There was no phytotoxicity to red raspberry associated with any of the nematicides.
Inga A. Zasada, Thomas W. Walters and John N. Pinkerton
Clarice J. Coyne, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, Kenneth B. Johnson, John N. Pinkerton and David C. Smith
A rapid and reliable assay for screening European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) genotypes for quantitative resistance to eastern filbert blight [Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller] was tested by comparing two methods using the same clones. In the first assay, disease spread was followed for five consecutive years (1992-96) in a field plot planted in 1990. Measured responses included disease incidence (the presence or absence of cankers) and total canker length, quantified as the length of perennially expanding cankers. The second assay consisted of annually exposing replicated sets of 2-year-old, potted trees to artificially high doses of pathogen inoculum and measuring incidence and canker lengths at the end of the next growing season. The potted trees were exposed to inoculum in 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1994. Compared to the field plot, disease incidence and total canker length were higher in all the potted-tree experiments. Nonetheless, disease responses of individual clones in the two screening methods were significantly correlated in some contrasts (rs = 0.97 between 1996 field and 1995 potted trees). However, for a few clones (`Camponica', `Tombul Ghiaghli', and `Tonda di Giffoni'), disease developed slowly in the field plot, but disease incidence on these clones averaged > 30% in most of the potted-tree studies. Disease responses also were significantly correlated among some of the potted-tree experiments (rs = 0.72 for the comparison of 1994 to 1995). Highly susceptible and highly resistant hazelnut clones were identified by both methods. However, the field plot method was superior to the potted-tree method for distinguishing among moderately resistant clones. `Bulgaria XI-8', `Gem', `Camponica', `Tombul Ghiaghli', and `Tonda di Giffoni' were identified as promising sources of quantitative resistance to eastern filbert blight.
Thomas W. Walters, John N. Pinkerton, Ekaterini Riga, Inga A. Zasada, Michael Particka, Harvey A. Yoshida and Chris Ishida
The efficacy and phytotoxicity of postplant treatments to control root lesion nematodes [RLN (Pratylenchus penetrans)] and dagger nematodes [DN (Xiphinema bakeri)] in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) were evaluated in four field studies, each conducted over 1 to 3 years. Spring spray applications of oxamyl or fosthiazate reduced RLN and DN population densities for up to 2 years, but fall oxamyl sprays and spring drip-applied oxamyl applications were not effective. Oxamyl application rate determined the duration of nematode suppression. Two spring applications of oxamyl at 2 lb/acre provided more than 2 years of suppression, while two spring applications of 0.8 lb/acre suppressed nematodes for only 1 year. Spring oxamyl applications reduced ‘Nootka’ fruit yield for one season, but did not affect ‘Willamette’ yield. Fall spray-applied fenamiphos, fall and spring spray-applied DiTera (a fermentation product of the fungus Myrothecium verrucaria), fall drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene, and spring shallow-incorporated abyssinian mustard (Brassica carinata) seed meal suppressed RLN briefly (less than 6 months) or not at all.