African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.) are propagated commercially by leaf cuttings with or without a petiole (3). Laurie and Kiplinger (4) reported that leaves propagated without petioles produce more crowns. Developing shoots or crowns (plantlets) with roots usually are divided and handled as young plants. In one variation of this method the roots are removed from the shoots, the shoots are graded and the graded shoots are rerooted to obtain uniform plants. This method requires numerous shoots.
Container grown `Shishi-Gashira' camellias received a single foliar spray of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 40, or 60 mg a.i. liter uniconazole on 26 May 1989. Growth indices were determined about every 4 weeks during the 1989 growing season and following the spring 1990 growth flush. Flowering was also monitored. Growth was suppressed linearly or quadratically over the duration of the test, with growth inhibition 12 months after treatment ranging-l from 3.7% (5 mg a.i. liter-1) to 20.6% (60 mg a.i. liter-1) relative to the control Flower number increased from 52.6% (5 mg a.i. liter-1) to 100% (60 mg a.i. liter-1) compared to the control. Time to flower was not affected by 5 to 20 mg a.i. liter-1 uniconazol but increased 4 to 7 days with the 40 and 60 mg a.i. liter-1 rates. Uniconazole rate did not affect flower diameter.
The level of endogenous root-promoting and inhibiting substances in 3 clones of rhododendron were compared at seasonal intervals in order to study the clonal and seasonal variation in rooting response of cuttings. The highest levels of 4 rooting cofactors in any season were found in both stem and leaf tissue of Rhododendron cv. ‘Cunningham’s White’ followed by ‘English Roseum’. The clone ‘Dr. H. C. Dresselhuys’ contained the least amount of the rooting cofactors. An inhibitor was often found in all clones, but it appeared less responsible for clonal differences in rooting response than variation in levels of the rooting cofactors. Rooting cofactor levels contained in the stem tissue of ‘Cunningham’s White’ were not less than those in the leaf tissue. In contrast, cofactor levels present in the stem tissue of ‘English Roseum’ and ‘Dr. H. C. Dresselhuys’ were less than those in the leaf tissue. The promoting activity of rooting cofactors in all tissues of the clones increased in September and decreased again in November to the level of July extract. The inhibitor found in the July extracts disappeared in September and reappeared in November.
Rooting of cuttings of ‘Dr. H. C. Dresselhuys’ was significantly improved by grafting a leaf and bud scion of ‘Cunningham’s White’. On the other hand, scions of ‘Dr. H. C. Dresselhuys’ resulted in decreased rooting of cuttings of ‘Cunningham’s White‘. Rooting capacity of ‘English Roseum’ was less affected by a leaf and bud scion of other clones of Rhododendron.
Volatile extracts were isolated from pods of southernpea by vapor-phase ether extraction. In bioassays conducted with freshly emerged adult curculios Chalcodermus aeneus (Boh.), the insects were significantly more attracted to extracts of the susceptible ‘California Blackeye No. 5’ than to air with no extracts. Extracts of the breeding lines Ala. 963.8 and CR 22-2-21 were repellent to the insects as evidenced by directed travel away from the extracts towards air alone. Gas chromatographic profiles of the 3 extracts showed obvious qualitative and quantitative differences.
Paclobutrazol drenches were more effective in retarding chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium ‘Charm’) plant height than paclobutrazol incorporated in plaster-of-paris tablets, injected hydrogels, and gelatin capsules applied at the same rate (0.5 mg a.i./15-cm pot) in three experiments. Capsules containing paclobutrazol also controlled plant height effectively in all three experiments. Drenches consistently reduced plant area, whereas a 50-ppm paclobutrazol spray did not. Paclobutrazol tablets, gels, and capsules reduced plant area in two of three experiments. Drenches were the only treatment to reduce flower number per plant. Chemical name used: β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
A method of extracting indole compounds from stem segments of woody cuttings of Ilex crenata ‘Convexa’ by refrigerated centrifugation has been developed. Effective extraction was obtained when segments were immersed in a solution of 40% ethanol (v/v) and exposed to a force of 2750 X g for at least 2 hr. Exposure to that force for more than 4 hr did not result in a significant increase in extractable auxin. Quantitative determinations of 14C measured by liquid scintillation counts of the extracts revealed that this method reliably depicted changes in levels of IAA or its metabolized forms in different stem segments as a result of different treatments. Chromatographic separation of extracts revealed that at least 35% of the label was still in the form of IAA after 48 hr. The increased levels of auxin in stem segments was also portrayed by significant rooting increases as determined by rooting index. Centrifugation extracts separated into 2 phases and were removed separately, most of the isotope was contained in the smaller lower phase. Proportionate levels of the 2 phases changed in segments over time and the lower phase disappeared at the time of rooting.
Changes in levels of IAA in stem segments of Ilex have been detected by centrifugation extraction and subsequently identified by Rf. The radio-chemical was absorbed through intact tissue, leaf scars, wounds, or cut apical or basal ends of cuttings. It was not as readily transported to the base when it entered apical tissue through leaf scars as when it entered intact tissue of that region. When it entered basal ends of cuttings, some of it was carried to the apex within 48 hr.