Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 57 items for

  • Author or Editor: John M. Ruter x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

John M. Ruter

Free access

John M. Ruter

A study was conducted to compare four different controlled-release fertilizers when used in conjunction with Tex-R Geodiscs on the growth of Ilex crenata Thunb. ex J.A. Murray `Compacta' in 3.8 L (#1) containers. The fertilizers used were Osmocote Plus Southern Formula (18N-3.9P-10K), Osmocote Plus Northern Formula (18N-3.9P-10K), Wilbro (15N-1.7P-7.5K), and Nutricote T-360 (17N-2.6P-6.6K) all applied at the rate of 1.8 kg N/m3. Geodisc treatments were: 1) no disc, 2) fertilizer placed on top of the disc, and 3) fertilizer placed beneath the disc. At 2 and 4 months after the initiation of the study, the growth indices for plants grown with both Osmocote Plus fertilizers were larger than for either of the other two fertilizers. After 7 months, final growth indices were greater for the Osmocote Plus and Wilbro treatments compared to Nutricote. Final leaf, stem, and root dry masses were all greater for the Osmocote Plus fertilizers compared to the other two, as was final plant quality. Plants with fertilizer placed on top of the disc were smaller compared to the no disc or beneath the disc treatments. Geodisc treatment had no influence on shoot dry mass or final plant quality. Data for leachate nutrient analysis and evapotranspiration will also be presented.

Full access

John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Coreopsis verticillata L. `Moonbeam' and Plumbago auriculata Lam. to evaluate the growth of these perennial plants in 2.6-liter (#1) black plastic containers (BPCs) compared to plants grown in fiber containers with Cu(OH)2 (FCs+) impregnated into the container walls. Coreopsis root and shoot dry weight was unaffected by container type, whereas Plumbago root and shoot dry weight was greater (2.2× and 1.6×, respectively) for plants grown in FCs+ compared to BPCs. The root : shoot ratio of Plumbago increased 30% when plants were grown in FCs+ compared to BPCs. Root circling was effectively controlled for both species grown in the FCs+. FCs remained in salable condition for the duration of the study. In contrast to untreated FCs, FCs+ will have to be removed at transplanting to allow for normal root development.

Full access

John M. Ruter

Paclobutrazol was applied as a foliar spray, root-medium drench, and impregnated spike to `New Gold' lantana grown in 2.8-liter pots. Plants were treated 14 June 1993 at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg a.i. paclobutrazol/pot and were harvested 27 July 1993 when control plants required further pruning. Impregnated spikes reduced plant size and flowering to a greater degree than spray applications. Drenches reduced root dry weight and biomass compared to spray applications. Plants treated with 0.5 and 1.0 mg a.i. paclobutrazol/pot were not different in regards to plant growth and flowering. Compared to nontreated controls, plants treated with paclobutrazol had a reduced growth index, decreased shoot and root dry weight, and fewer flowers with open florets. All plants in the study were marketable, even though growth control was considered excessive. Lower rates than used in this study should be considered for controlling growth. These results suggest that impregnated spike formulations of paclobutrazol may control plant growth in pine bark-based media.

Free access

John M. Ruter

Decline of certain container-grown ornamental species during the hottest months of summer is a common problem for nurserymen in the southeastern United States. When roots are killed due to high root-zone temperatures and growth ceases, production of plant hormones also decreases. A study was conducted with Early Harvest PGR (Griffin LLC, Valdosta, Ga.), which contains cytokinins, gibberellic acid, and indole butyric acid, to determine if this product would improve the growth of five ornamental species that typically decline during the summer in south Georgia nurseries. The species used were Cotoneaster dammeri Schneid. `Coral Beauty', Cotoneaster salicifolius Franch. `Green Carpet', Spiraea japonica L. `Shirobana', Thuja occidentalis L. `Little Giant', and Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC. `Minuet'. The treatments (control, 1.5 and 3.0 mL Early Harvest PGR/1125 mL water) were applied every 2 weeks from mid-June until mid-Sept. 1999 as a foliar drench. Treatment of both Cotoneaster species and the Thuja with Early Harvest PGR resulted in little influence on plant growth. While growth indices did not increase, shoot dry mass of Spiraea and Weigela increased 17% and 26%, respectively, when treated with Early Harvest PGR at the medium rate. Plant quality ratings for Spiraea increased when the 1.5-mL rate of Early Harvest PGR was applied. A rate of 3.0 mL of Early Harvest PGR on Spiraea decreased shoot and root dry mass, total biomass, root ratings, and final plant quality. Root ratings and plant quality were highest for Weigela grown with the 1.5-mL Early Harvest PGR treatment. These results indicate that treatment of woody ornamentals with Early Harvest PGR for positive results is both species- and rate-dependent.

Free access

John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Dendranthemum ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura garden chrysanthemum (`Grenadine', `Nicole', and `Tolima') to evaluate the growth and flowering of these plants grown in 2.6-L (no. 1) black plastic containers compared to plants grown in fiber containers with Cu(OH)2 impregnated into the container walls. For all three cultivars, growth indices, shoot and root dry weights, and total biomass increased for plants grown in fiber containers. Total number of flower buds per plant increased 30% to 32% for `Grenadine' and `Nicole' and 53% for `Tolima' grown in fiber containers. Plants grown in Cu(OH)2-impregnated fiber containers had less root coverage at the container:growing medium interface and no observable root circling in contrast to visible root circling on plants grown in black plastic containers. Foliar nutrient analysis on `Grenadine' showed that K decreased and Fe and Cu increased when grown in Cu(OH)2-impregnated fiber containers. No visible nutrient abnormalities were seen in this study.

Free access

John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Prunus × incamp `Okame' to evaluate the effects of a pot-in-pot production system compared to a conventional above-ground system and cyclic irrigation on plant growth and water loss. Plants were grown in #7 (26-L) containers with a 8:1 pinebark:sand (v/v) substrate. Cyclic irrigation provided the same total volume of water, but was applied one, three, or four times per day. Final plant height and stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, total biomass, and root:shoot ratio were all increased for plants grown pot-in-pot compared to above-ground. Multiple irrigation cycles increased stem diameter, shoot dry weight, and total biomass, compared to a single irrigation application. Multiple irrigation cycles decreased the root:shoot ratio. Evapotranspiration was influenced by production system, irrigation, and date. Amount of water lost as leachate was influenced by irrigation and date. Cyclic irrigation resulted in a two-fold decrease in leachate volume. Soluble salts and nitrate-nitrogen in the leachate were influenced by an interaction between production system, irrigation, and date.

Free access

John M. Ruter

Membrane thermostability of Heritage river birch (Betula nigra L. Heritage) was measured by electrolyte leakage from excised roots of plants grown in pot-in-pot (PIP) and conventional aboveground production systems (CPS). The predicted critical midpoint temperature (Tm) for a 30-min exposure was 54.6 ± 0.2 °C for PIP and 56.2 ± 0.6 °C for CPS plants. Plants grown PIP had a steeper slope through the predicted Tm, suggesting a decreased tolerance to high root-zone temperatures in relation to plants grown aboveground. Since the root systems of Heritage river birch grown PIP are damaged at lower temperatures than plants grown aboveground, growers should prevent exposure of root systems to high temperatures during postproduction handling of plants grown PIP.

Free access

John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei `Acom a' to evaluate methods for reducing rooting-out problems in a PIP production system. The products tested were Biobarrier™, a geotextile fabric impregnated with trifluralin; Root Control'” fabric bag material; and Spin Out™, a commercial formulation of copper hydroxide (7.1%) in latex paint. Biobarrier™ reduced plant height, shoot dry weight, percent root dry weight outside of the planted container and total biomass compared to the non-treated control. For the control, 7.1% of the total root dry weight was found between the holder pot and planted container compared to 0.2% for the Biobarrier™ treatment. When the holder pot and planted container or the planted container and Root Control™ fabric were both treated with Spin Out™, plant height and shoot dry weight were reduced. Spin Out™ reduced root circling on the sidewalls of the planted containers but not on the bottom of the containers. All treatments except the control reduced rooting-out to a degree that allowed for the manual harvesting of the planted container from the holder pot after seven months in the field.

Free access

John M. Ruter

Membrane thermostability of `Needlepoint' Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxt.), `Albo-marginata' English holly (Ilex aquifolium L.), and `Nellie R. Stevens', an Ilex aquifolium × Ilex cornuta hybrid, was determined by measuring electrolyte leakage in excised leaves and roots. The critical midpoint heat-killing temperature (T,) after a 30-min exposure was 54.4 ± 0.4C for `Nellie R. Stevens' leaves and was ≈ lC higher than that for Chinese (52.9 ± 0.3C) or English holly (52.9 ± 0.4C). The Tm for English holly roots (53.9 ±_ 1.5C) was higher than that for either `Nellie R. Stevens' (51.7 ± 0.3C) or Chinese holly (50.1 ± 0.3C). The results of this study suggest that English holly and `Nellie R. Stevens' leaves and roots can withstand direct heat injury equal to or greater than that of Chinese holly.