The interaction among temperature, photoperiod, and irradiance on survival of Chamaecereus silvestrii (yellow sport) flat-grafted onto Hylocereus trigonus Haw. rootstock was studied in an effort to understand the basis for elevated scion necrosis during winter. Plants were placed in glasshouses maintained at 12, 16, 20, or 24 °C under either daylight (moles per day), 66% daylight or daylight + 100 μmol·s−1·m−2 irradiance levels. Plants were grown with an 8-hour (short day) or 8-hour + 4-hour night interruption (long day) photoperiod. Cactus scion necrosis increased under short days and a growing temperature of 12 °C and was nearly eliminated by long-day conditions and a growing temperature of 16 °C. Irradiance did not affect scion necrosis. Plant quality rating was highest when plants were grown under long-day conditions at 16 °C.
Debra Schwarze and John E. Erwin
A phone survey was conducted to assess the total impact of the floriculture industry on the Minnesota economy. Data were collected from wholesale growers, garden center retailers, chain stores, and florists. Information was gathered on `hard good' sales associated with greenhouse produced plants as well as plant sales. In addition, data on labor and salaries associated with the production, distribution, and retailing of plants and goods associated with the floriculture industry was collected. This data will be provided to local flower growers organizations to enable these groups to actively lobby for their concerns within the state.
John E. Erwin and Gerald Pierson
Lypcopersicum esculentum cv `Money Maker' seeds were germinated at constant 20C. Three days after germination seedlings were randomly divided into 3 groups and placed into 3 growth chambers maintained at 23/17, 20/20, or 17/23C (day/night temperature) (DT/NT). Irradiance and photoperiod were maintained at 250 μmol s-1 m-2 and 12 hrs, respectively. At the 2 leaf stage, plants in each chamber were divided into 3 groups of 3 plants each to receive a growth regulator treatment. Growth regulator treatments consisted of spray applications of either ancymidol (52ppm), GA3 (12ppm), or water applied every 3 days for 21 days. Measurements were taken on internode length and chlorophyll content after 21 days. Internode length increased as the difference (DIF) between DT and NT increased (DT-NT). Exogenous applications of GA3 overcame inhibition of stem elongation resulting from a -DIF environment. Application of ancymidol did not significantly decrease stem elongation in a -DIF environment. Temperature regime had a significant impact on chlorophyll content per mg dry weight. In contrast, growth regulator applications had a significant impact on chlorophyll content cm-2. There was no significant impact of either temperature regime or growth regulator treatment on the chlorophyll a/b ratio.
John E. Erwin and Debra Schwarze
Five cuttings from different node positions on stock plants were taken from each of 3 Clematis cultivars (Jackmani, Contesse de Bouchard, and Gypsy Queen) and Clematis purpurea plena elegans. Actively growing plants with 5 nodes were acquired. Node number increased from 1 at the base of the plant to 5 at the tip of the plant. Cuttings were treated with or without 0.1% IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) and placed in 1 of 5 different media: 100% washed sand (WS), 50% washed sand and 50% sphagnum peat (WP), 50% sphagnum peat and 50% perlite (SP), 100%) perlite (PT), or 50% sphagnum peat plus 25% perlite plus 25% vermiculite (PV). Rooting date, primary and secondary root number, and root dry weight were collected after 8 weeks. `Gypsy Queen' showed the earliest rooting with the greatest root development. Jackmani showed the worst rooting. Media WS and PT showed the best rooting whereas WP and SP showed the worst. Cuttings taken from the first 3 nodes rooted the best. As node position increased root number and dry weight decreased and time to root increased. Application of IBA had no significant effect on time to root or degree of rooting.
John E. Erwin and Nina Glomsrud
Rose plants (cvs `Royalty' and `Lovely Girl') in an established canopy were cut back to node 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, or 13 from the base of the stem at harvest. Harvest was defined as the reflexing of the outermost petal. Most rose stems were composed of 13 nodes, therefore, pruning to the 13th node involved removing the flower only. Three leaf removal techniques were evaluated: 1) no leaf removal, 2) removing the node leaf only, or 3) removing all leaves on the stem. Total break number increased as the node position which stems were cut back to increased. For instance, break number increased on `Lovely Girl' from 1.8 to 2.6 breaks as node position increased from 1 to 13. The number of lateral breaks which developed into marketable flowers also increased as the node position which stems were cut back to increased. `Lovely Girl' flower number increased from 0 to 2.6 flowers per stem as node position increased from 1 to 13. Leaf removal reduced the number of marketable flowering shoots. For instance, flowering shoots decreased from 2.6 to 1.4 per stem on stems cut at the 13th node following removal of all leaves on that stem. `Royalty' had more lateral breaks than `Lovely Girl' but also had more non-flowering lateral breaks following pruning. Commercial implications of this research will be discussed.
John E. Erwin and Royal D. Heins
Day (DT) and night temperatures (NT) influenced Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White' stem elongation and development rate from the visible bud stage (VB) until anthesis. Plant height increase after VB was a function of the difference (DIF) between DT and NT (DT-NT). Plant height increased 90% as DIF increased from - 16 to 16C. A cubic model described bud development rate as a function of temperature from 14 to 30C. A linear model adequately described bud development rate as a function of average daily temperature from 14 to 21C. Based on the linear model, bud development rate increased 0.05 per day for each 1C increase in average daily temperature. The base temperature for bud development, i.e., the temperature at which bud development rate was 0, was calculated as 3.5C.
Roar Moe, John E Erwin and Will Carlson
The role of irradiance and/or ethylene in inducing mortality and self-branching disorders in Gerbera jamesonii Bolus. seedlings was studied. Seedling mortality increased from 8% to 57% when seed was covered with vermiculite than left uncovered during germination. Supplemental lighting for 30 days after germination decreased seedling mortality and decreased the time to visible bud compared to seed germinated under natural light only. In subsequent experiments, seeds were germinated and then seedlings were water logged or sprayed with ethephon (0.69, 3.45, or 17.25 mM) at four different stages of seedling development. Half of the ethephon-treated seedlings were sprayed with silver thiosulfate (STS). Seedling mortality was greatest after cotyledon expansion but before expansion of the first tree leaf. The highest ethephon concentration caused reduced seedling dry weight after 42 days. Applying STS did not overcome self-branching or meristem necrosis.
Ryan M. Warner and John E. Erwin
One-time spray applications [about 6 mL (0.2 fl oz)] of chlormequat chloride [1000 or 2000 mg·L-1 (ppm)], daminozide (2500 or 5000 mg·L-1), paclobutrazol (20 or 40 mg·L-1) and uniconazole (5 or 10 mg·L-1) varied in efficacy in reducing Hibiscus coccineus (Medic.) Walt., H. radiatus Cav., and H. trionum L. (flower-of-an-hour) stem elongation. Chlormequat chloride inhibited stem elongation of all species, with a 2000 mg·L-1 application reducing stem length of H. coccineus, H. radiatus, and H. trionum by 87%, 42%, and 52%, respectively, compared to untreated plants, 28 d after application. Paclobutrazol also inhibited stem elongation of all species. Uniconazole reduced stem elongation of H. coccineus and H. radiatus, but not H. trionum. Daminozide applied at 5000 mg·L-1 reduced H. radiatus stem elongation only. Growth retardants examined in this study did not delay flowering of H. trionum, the only species that flowered during the experiment. (Chemical names used: ancymidol (α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenol)-5-pyrimidinemethonol), chlormequat chloride(2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride), paclobutrazol ((+)-(R*,R*)-beta((4-chlorophenyl)methyl)-alpha-(1,1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ethanol), daminozide ([butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide)], uniconazol-P ((E)-(+)-(s)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pent-1-ene-3-ol)).
Tami Van Gaal and John E. Erwin
Wind, touching, and/or mechanical stress can restrict stem elongation. Removal of the registration of the growth retardant daminozide for use on edible crops increased interest in thigmotropic inhibition of stem elongation to control plant height in greenhouse crops, as well as a general desire by growers to decrease chemical inputs for floriculture crops. Since stem elongation varies diurnally, the question arises as to whether wind inhibition of stem elongation varies over a 24-hour period. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) `MoneyMaker' and cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) `Imperial Pink' seedlings were placed under each of 10 wind perturbation treatments [applied for different durations and at different times during a 24-hour period; wind speed (perpendicular to the media) at seedling level was 30 km·h–1 (18.6 mph)] for 30 days. Data were collected on plant height and leaf number on days 1 and 30. The effect of wind on stem elongation differed with species; wind treatments restricted stem elongation more on cosmos than tomato (53% and 20%, respectively, across treatments). Tomato elongation was most restricted when seedlings received wind all day, all night, or all day and night. Within short-term treatments, internode length was least when tomato seedlings received a mid-day wind treatment. Cosmos elongation was most restricted when seedlings received a wind treatment all day or all night. Within short-term treatments, cosmos internode elongation was most restricted with early- and mid-day wind treatments. Data here suggest wind effects on elongation vary diurnally. In addition, the magnitude of wind effects on elongation varied with species and was greatest during the beginning of the day on cosmos, which mirrors when stem elongation is most sensitive to temperature fluctuations.
Cheryl L. Reese and John E. Erwin
The interaction between day/night temperature (DT/NT) and irradiance during the photoperiod prior to the inductive night on Pharbitis nil (L.) cv. Violet flower induction was studied. Plants exposed to 12 or 18 °C NT did not flower regardless of DT. When NT was 24 or 30 °C, percent flowering plants increased progressively as DT increased from 12 to 30 °C. Percent flowering plants and total flower bud number per plant was greatest when seedlings were induced with a 24 or 30 °C DT/30 °C NT regime. DT/NT did not affect the node number to first flower. Irradiance did not affect flowering. Temperature effects on P. nil flowering could be described as a function of average daily temperature, where flowering increased as temperature rose from 22 to 30 °C.