The interaction among temperature, photoperiod, and irradiance on survival of Chamaecereus silvestrii (yellow sport) flat-grafted onto Hylocereus trigonus Haw. rootstock was studied in an effort to understand the basis for elevated scion necrosis during winter. Plants were placed in glasshouses maintained at 12, 16, 20, or 24 °C under either daylight (moles per day), 66% daylight or daylight + 100 μmol·s−1·m−2 irradiance levels. Plants were grown with an 8-hour (short day) or 8-hour + 4-hour night interruption (long day) photoperiod. Cactus scion necrosis increased under short days and a growing temperature of 12 °C and was nearly eliminated by long-day conditions and a growing temperature of 16 °C. Irradiance did not affect scion necrosis. Plant quality rating was highest when plants were grown under long-day conditions at 16 °C.
Debra Schwarze and John E. Erwin
A phone survey was conducted to assess the total impact of the floriculture industry on the Minnesota economy. Data were collected from wholesale growers, garden center retailers, chain stores, and florists. Information was gathered on `hard good' sales associated with greenhouse produced plants as well as plant sales. In addition, data on labor and salaries associated with the production, distribution, and retailing of plants and goods associated with the floriculture industry was collected. This data will be provided to local flower growers organizations to enable these groups to actively lobby for their concerns within the state.
John E. Erwin and Gerald Pierson
Lypcopersicum esculentum cv `Money Maker' seeds were germinated at constant 20C. Three days after germination seedlings were randomly divided into 3 groups and placed into 3 growth chambers maintained at 23/17, 20/20, or 17/23C (day/night temperature) (DT/NT). Irradiance and photoperiod were maintained at 250 μmol s-1 m-2 and 12 hrs, respectively. At the 2 leaf stage, plants in each chamber were divided into 3 groups of 3 plants each to receive a growth regulator treatment. Growth regulator treatments consisted of spray applications of either ancymidol (52ppm), GA3 (12ppm), or water applied every 3 days for 21 days. Measurements were taken on internode length and chlorophyll content after 21 days. Internode length increased as the difference (DIF) between DT and NT increased (DT-NT). Exogenous applications of GA3 overcame inhibition of stem elongation resulting from a -DIF environment. Application of ancymidol did not significantly decrease stem elongation in a -DIF environment. Temperature regime had a significant impact on chlorophyll content per mg dry weight. In contrast, growth regulator applications had a significant impact on chlorophyll content cm-2. There was no significant impact of either temperature regime or growth regulator treatment on the chlorophyll a/b ratio.
John E. Erwin and Debra Schwarze
Five cuttings from different node positions on stock plants were taken from each of 3 Clematis cultivars (Jackmani, Contesse de Bouchard, and Gypsy Queen) and Clematis purpurea plena elegans. Actively growing plants with 5 nodes were acquired. Node number increased from 1 at the base of the plant to 5 at the tip of the plant. Cuttings were treated with or without 0.1% IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) and placed in 1 of 5 different media: 100% washed sand (WS), 50% washed sand and 50% sphagnum peat (WP), 50% sphagnum peat and 50% perlite (SP), 100%) perlite (PT), or 50% sphagnum peat plus 25% perlite plus 25% vermiculite (PV). Rooting date, primary and secondary root number, and root dry weight were collected after 8 weeks. `Gypsy Queen' showed the earliest rooting with the greatest root development. Jackmani showed the worst rooting. Media WS and PT showed the best rooting whereas WP and SP showed the worst. Cuttings taken from the first 3 nodes rooted the best. As node position increased root number and dry weight decreased and time to root increased. Application of IBA had no significant effect on time to root or degree of rooting.
John E. Erwin and Nina Glomsrud
Rose plants (cvs `Royalty' and `Lovely Girl') in an established canopy were cut back to node 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, or 13 from the base of the stem at harvest. Harvest was defined as the reflexing of the outermost petal. Most rose stems were composed of 13 nodes, therefore, pruning to the 13th node involved removing the flower only. Three leaf removal techniques were evaluated: 1) no leaf removal, 2) removing the node leaf only, or 3) removing all leaves on the stem. Total break number increased as the node position which stems were cut back to increased. For instance, break number increased on `Lovely Girl' from 1.8 to 2.6 breaks as node position increased from 1 to 13. The number of lateral breaks which developed into marketable flowers also increased as the node position which stems were cut back to increased. `Lovely Girl' flower number increased from 0 to 2.6 flowers per stem as node position increased from 1 to 13. Leaf removal reduced the number of marketable flowering shoots. For instance, flowering shoots decreased from 2.6 to 1.4 per stem on stems cut at the 13th node following removal of all leaves on that stem. `Royalty' had more lateral breaks than `Lovely Girl' but also had more non-flowering lateral breaks following pruning. Commercial implications of this research will be discussed.
Cheryl L. Reese and John E. Erwin
The interaction between day/night temperature (DT/NT) and irradiance during the photoperiod prior to the inductive night on Pharbitis nil (L.) cv. Violet flower induction was studied. Plants exposed to 12 or 18 °C NT did not flower regardless of DT. When NT was 24 or 30 °C, percent flowering plants increased progressively as DT increased from 12 to 30 °C. Percent flowering plants and total flower bud number per plant was greatest when seedlings were induced with a 24 or 30 °C DT/30 °C NT regime. DT/NT did not affect the node number to first flower. Irradiance did not affect flowering. Temperature effects on P. nil flowering could be described as a function of average daily temperature, where flowering increased as temperature rose from 22 to 30 °C.
Ryan M. Warner and John E. Erwin
One-time spray applications [about 6 mL (0.2 fl oz)] of chlormequat chloride [1000 or 2000 mg·L-1 (ppm)], daminozide (2500 or 5000 mg·L-1), paclobutrazol (20 or 40 mg·L-1) and uniconazole (5 or 10 mg·L-1) varied in efficacy in reducing Hibiscus coccineus (Medic.) Walt., H. radiatus Cav., and H. trionum L. (flower-of-an-hour) stem elongation. Chlormequat chloride inhibited stem elongation of all species, with a 2000 mg·L-1 application reducing stem length of H. coccineus, H. radiatus, and H. trionum by 87%, 42%, and 52%, respectively, compared to untreated plants, 28 d after application. Paclobutrazol also inhibited stem elongation of all species. Uniconazole reduced stem elongation of H. coccineus and H. radiatus, but not H. trionum. Daminozide applied at 5000 mg·L-1 reduced H. radiatus stem elongation only. Growth retardants examined in this study did not delay flowering of H. trionum, the only species that flowered during the experiment. (Chemical names used: ancymidol (α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenol)-5-pyrimidinemethonol), chlormequat chloride(2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride), paclobutrazol ((+)-(R*,R*)-beta((4-chlorophenyl)methyl)-alpha-(1,1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ethanol), daminozide ([butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide)], uniconazol-P ((E)-(+)-(s)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pent-1-ene-3-ol)).
Ryan M. Warner and John. E. Erwin
Flowering of many herbaceous ornamentals is reduced or eliminated under high temperatures. On warm, sunny days, greenhouse growers often cover crops with light-reducing screening materials to reduce air and plant temperature. However, low irradiance can also reduce flowering on many species. To examine the impacts of temperature and irradiance on herbaceous ornamental flowering and to select a model to study high temperature-reduced flowering, Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) `Rocket Rose', Calendula officinalis L. (calendula) `Calypso Orange', Impatiens wallerana Hook.f. (impatiens) `Super Elfin White', Mimulus ×hybridus Hort. ex Siebert & Voss (mimulus) `Mystic Yellow', and Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Fourn (torenia) `Clown Burgundy' were grown at constant 32 ± 1 °C or 20 ± 1.5 °C under a 16-hour photoperiod with daily light integrals (DLI) of 10.5, 17.5, or 21.8 mol·m-2·d-1. Flower bud number per plant (all flower buds ≥1 mm in length when the first flower opened) of all species was lower at 32 than 20 °C. Reduction in flower bud number per plant at 32 compared to 20 °C varied from 30% (impatiens) to 95% (torenia) under a DLI of 10.5 mol·m-2·d-1. Flower diameter of all species except snapdragon was less at 32 than 20 °C. Decreasing DLI from 21.8 to 10.5 mol·m-2·d-1 decreased flower diameter of all species except snapdragon. Calendula, impatiens, and torenia leaf number below the first flower was greater at 32 than 20 °C, regardless of DLI. Increasing DLI from 10.5 to 17.5 mol·m-2·d-1 increased shoot dry mass gain rate of all species, regardless of temperature. Further increasing DLI from 17.5 to 21.8 mol·m-2·d-1 at 20 °C increased shoot dry mass gain rate of all species except snapdragon and mimulus, indicating that these species may be light saturated below 21.8 mol·m-2·d-1. Under DLIs of 17.5 and 21.8 mol·m-2·d-1 shoot dry mass gain rate was lower at 32 than 20 °C for all species except torenia. Torenia shoot dry mass gain rate was 129 mg·d-1 at 20 °C compared to 252 mg·d-1 at 32 °C under a DLI of 17.5 mol·m-2·d-1. We suggest torenia may be a good model to study the basis for inhibition of flowering under high temperatures as flowering, but not dry mass gain, was reduced at 32 °C.
Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin
Our objective in this study was to identify the effects of the photosynthetic daily light integral (DLI) on growth and flowering of six kalanchoe (Kalanchoe) species: Kalanchoe glaucescens, christmas tree plant (K. laciniata), chandelier plant (K. manginii), shovel leaf kalanchoe (K. nyikae), common kalanchoe or nentabos (K. rotundifolia), and velvet leaf kalanchoe (K. velutina). Plants were grown under an 8-hour photoperiod with a DLI of 4.3, 8.6, or 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1. Node numbers below the terminal inflorescence on K. glaucescens, K. manginii, K. nyikae, and K. rotundifolia decreased as the DLI increased, whereas node numbers of K. laciniata and K. velutina were unaffected by DLI. Time to first open flower of K. glaucescens, K. nyikae, and K. rotundifolia was unaffected by the DLI, whereas increasing the DLI from 4.3 to 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1 reduced the time to first open flower of K. laciniata, K. manginii, and K. velutina. Total flowers for all species increased as the DLI exceeded 4.3 mol·m−2·d−1. Shoot heights of K. glaucescens and K. rotundifolia increased as the DLI increased from 4.3 to 8.6 mol·m−2·d−1, whereas shoot height of K. nyikae decreased as the DLI increased from 4.3 to 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1; shoot heights of K. laciniata, K. manginii and K. velutina were unaffected by DLI. Dry weight gain increased for all species as the DLI exceeded 4.3 mol·m−2·d−1.
Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin
Our objectives were to assess the efficacy of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) on stem elongation and branching of 11 kalanchoe (Kalanchoe) species with ornamental characteristics: beauvard’s widow’s-thrill (K. beauvardii), K. glaucescens, lavender scallops or red-leaved kalanchoe (K. fedtschenkoi), K. longiflora, chandelier plant (K. manginii), marnier’s kalanchoe (K. marnieriana), K. millotii, flower dust plant (K. pumila), K. rosei, common kalanchoe or nentabos (K. rotundifolia), and K. streptantha. Foliar spray applications of deionized water, ancymidol (15−60 ppm), benzyladenine (75−300 ppm), chlormequat chloride (750−3000 ppm), daminozide (1250−5000 ppm), ethephon (250−1000 ppm), paclobutrazol (10−40 ppm), or uniconazole (5−20 ppm) were applied 2 weeks after plants were pinched. Stem length at the time of application and 4 weeks after applications and branch number were recorded. While effective chemicals and concentrations varied widely among species, paclobutrazol and uniconazole were identified as providing broad efficacy with respect to inhibition of stem elongation across all 11 species in this study. Additionally, benzyladenine and ethephon increased the number of branches for several species.