Empirical observations suggest certain new cultivars of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) with high shoot density require more intensive topdressing and core aeration to control thatch compared to less dense cultivars such as `Penncross. In addition, a variety of Poa annua var. reptans Hausskn., `DW-184, has recently been released for putting green use but management requirements are undocumented. The objective of our project was to determine the core aeration and topdressing requirements for thatch management of creeping bentgrass cultivars `A-4, `G-2, and `Penncross as compared to `DW-184. Plots were established on a sand-based root zone and maintained as putting green turf for 3 years. A factorial treatment arrangement was used to assess the effects of core aeration and topdressing on thatch, topdressing removal, turf quality, and disease. Both `A-4 and `G-2 produced more organic matter as (thatch/mat) than `Penncross and `DW-184. Grass type, core aeration frequency, and topdressing regime affected the amount of topdressing removed by mowing. An interaction between grass type and topdressing regime showed biweekly topdressing with verticutting resulted in less topdressing removal from all grasses except `G-2 compared to monthly topdressing without verticutting. Since no more than 3% of the topdressing applied was removed from any single treatment, however, the overall impact of grass type, core aeration frequency, or topdressing regime are unlikely to affect turf response. Both `A-4 and `G-2 provided consistently better quality turf than `Penncross or `DW-184 at 3.2 mm mowing height, though `A-4 was more susceptible to dollar spot disease (Sclerotinia homeocarpa F.T. Bennett) than `Penncross or `G-2. Cultivation and topdressing methods for management of `A-4 and `G-2 bentgrasses do not differ substantially from `Penncross or `DW-184 creeping bluegrass.
John C. Stier and Andrew B. Hollman
Daniel T. Lloyd, Douglas J. Soldat and John C. Stier
Fall fertilization of turfgrass in northern climates is often considered to be agronomically beneficial, although research on nitrogen (N) uptake during cold temperatures is sparse and environmental concerns exist regarding nitrate leaching. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate N uptake potential, use, and plant metabolic response in a climate-controlled environment evaluating the responses of various cool-season turfgrass species to variable N rates and temperature regimens. Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and annual bluegrass (Poa annua var. reptans L.) were seeded and grown for 3 months and then acclimated in a growth chamber to one of three climate regimens corresponding to 15 Sept., 15 Oct., and 15 Nov. in Madison, WI. Grasses were fertilized at 0, 25, 49, or 98 kg·ha−1 N with 15N-labeled ammonium sulfate (10 atom % 15N) by applying a liquid solution of 75 mL per pot (1 cm of solution in depth). Data collected included verdure biomass, root mass, net canopy photosynthesis, and 15N fertilizer uptake. For all turfgrass species, shoot growth increased in response to N application in the September regimen, but not in October or November regimens. N uptake was significantly lower in the November regimen compared with September with an average of 73% of fertilizer recovery in September compared with 57% and 38% in October and November, respectively. Root mass and net canopy photosynthesis were greatest in the November treatments, although these responses were generally unaffected by N application rate. The results of this study indicate that N uptake capacity is greatly reduced as average daily temperatures approach 0 °C. Nitrogen application rates should be adjusted downward to maximize uptake efficiency in cold temperatures.
John C. Stier, Eric J. Koeritz and Mark Garrison
Sports field construction contracts in cool-season areas often stipulate a 9- to 12-month period between seeding and opening for play. Seed mixtures are usually dominated by slow-establishing Kentucky bluegrass (KBG; Poa pratensis L.) and contain lower proportions of perennial ryegrass (PRG; Lolium perenne L.) for quick cover. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of planting time on three KBG : PRG mixes, a 100% PRG blend, and their ability to sustain football-type traffic. Field plots were seeded in late summer, as a dormant planting in late fall, and in the following spring. Plots received simulated football traffic, split for one or four weekly games, from mid-August through mid-November of the year in which spring seeding occurred. The experimental design was a strip-split-plot, randomized block with four replications. The study was repeated a second year. All seeding dates provided acceptable turf quality regardless of seed type by September. However, summer seedings of KBG-based mixtures provided better turf quality than mixtures planted in the spring, whereas dormant-seeded mixtures provided the poorest turf quality. Turf seeded with 100% PRG was less sensitive to seeding date, with summer or spring seedings providing similar quality and dormant seedings superior to KBG-based dormant seedings. Summer seedings also resulted in the least amount of broadleaf weeds the next year with dormant seedings having the most weeds, particularly with plots seeded to 95% KBG. All KBG-based seed mixtures provided turf containing ≈50% KBG or more by September, although the amount of KBG remaining after traffic was significantly greatest in plots seeded to 95% KBG and least in plots seeded with 70% KBG. Pure PRG swards provided acceptable turf quality throughout the traffic period but should be used cautiously as a result of winterkill potential and crown rust disease (Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. agropyri Erikss.). Different amounts of traffic did not affect turf species proportions. The most consistently desirable results may be obtained with a mixture containing 70% to 80% KBG and 30% to 20% PRG, respectively. Mixtures dominated by KBG should be seeded in late summer for best results.