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Dennis E. Deyton, Carl E. Sams and John C. Cummins

Treatments of single applications of 0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12% dormant oil were sprayed on peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees on 6 Feb. 1990. A repeat application of 6% oil plus 6% oil applied 6 days later was also made. Internal CO 2 concentrations of oil-treated buds and twigs were higher than the control the day after treatment and continued to be higher for 6 days. The second application of 10% oil prolonged the elevated CO2 concentration. Applications of 9% or 12% oil delayed flower bud development and bloom. The repeated application of 6% oil delayed bud development and bloom more than a single application of 6% oil. Damage to fruit buds increased as oil concentration increased, but repeated application of 6% oil resulted in less damage than a single application of 12% oil.

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Dennis E. Deyton, Carl E. Sams and John C. Cummins

Foliar sprays of increasing concentrations (0, 75, 150, 300, 600, and 1200 mg·liter-1) of paclobutrazol were applied to `Cardinal' strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) 35 days after transplanting. The plants were established in August in cultivated plots for measurement of paclobutrazol effects on first year growth or in a double-row hill system on black polyethylene-covered raised beds for 2nd year measurements. Increasing the paclobutrazol concentration reduced the number of runners, decreased runner length, and limited biomass partitioned into daughter plants. By the end of the first growing season, paclobutrazol had increased lateral crown development but reduced leaf area per treated plant. Root growth was reduced by concentrations >600 mg·liter-1. Treatment with 75 to 300 mg·liter-1 increased total plant dry weight by 33% to 46%. The following spring, plant growth was decreased by ≥ 300 mg·liter-1. Yield was increased by all treatments, except 1200 mg·liter-1. Leaf net photosynthesis increased within 12 days after treatment with paclobutrazol and was higher than in the controls the next summer. Leaf stomata1 conductance also increased the first year and was significantly higher the 2nd year after treatment. The optimum concentration of paclobutrazol for strawberries appears to be between 150 and 300 mg·liter-1.

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Dennis E. Deyton, Carl E. Sams and John C. Cummins

Treatments of dormant oil, at rates of 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 % (v/v), were sprayed until drip on four year old `Biscoe' peach trees on February 6, 1990. Another treatment was applied as a split application with 6 % applied on the previous application date and a second application of 6% solution applied on February 12. The internal atmosphere of bud and twig was modified by the oil treatment. The internal concentration of CO2 was elevated the morning following treatment and continued higher than the control for seven days. A second application Of 6% oil resulted in additional elevation of internal CO2. External evolution of CO2 of all oil treated twigs was 6 to 18% lower than the control 8 days after treatment. Bud phenology and bloom date of trees receiving higher rates of oil were slightly delayed.

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Dennis E. Deyton, Carl E. Sams, Jim R. Ballington and John C. Cummins

`Legacy' southern highbush blueberry plants at the Middle Tennessee Research and Education Center were sprayed on 22 Feb. 2005 with 0%, 6%, 9%, or 12% soybean oil. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with five replications. Flower bud abortion was evaluated by sampling 25 flower buds/plant on 21 Mar., dissecting, and visually examining buds for browning of ovaries. Flower bud phonology was rated periodically until first bloom and then percentage of open bloom was rated every 2 to 3 days. Fruit were harvested for yield and 50-berry samples taken weekly for the first 4 weeks to determine berry size. Sprays of 6%, 9%, and 12% soybean oil delayed the 50% open bloom date of `Legacy' by 2, 4, and 9 days, respectively, but also caused 9%, 35% and 87% mortality of flower buds. `Legacy' bushes sprayed with 0%, 6%, 9% and 12% soybean yielded 11.6, 13.7, and 10.3, and 4.5 lb/bush, respectively. Berry size was increased by 14% to 23% by oil sprays. In a second experiment, `Climax' blueberries in a commercial planting in Spring City, Tenn., were sprayed on 4 Mar. with water, 5% TNsoy14 (96% soybean oil, a.i.), 500 ppm abscisic acid (ABA) (Valent BioSciences Corp., Long Grove, Ill.), or the combination of oil and ABA (seven replications). Flower bud development and bloom were rated as previously described. Spraying 5% TNsoy14 or 500 ppm ABA delayed the 50% open bloom date by 1 day and the combination of the two delayed bloom by an additional day. On 5 Apr., `Climax' bushes sprayed with 5% TNsoy14, 500 ppm ABA, and 5% TNsoy14 plus 500 ppm ABA had 49%, 41%, and 20% open bloom compared to 70% open bloom on control plants. The 5% oil, 500 ppm ABA, and the oil plus ABA treatments did not significantly affect crop load or berry size.

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Dennis E. Deyton, Renae E. Moran, Carl E. Sams and John C. Cummins

Applications of soybean oil to dormant peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees were tested for prebloom thinning of flower buds in five separate experiments. Data were combined from experiments in which 2.5% to 20% emulsified soybean oil was sprayed on `Belle of Georgia' or `Redhaven' trees. The number of dead flower buds was concentration-dependent with maximum bud kill of 53% occurring with application of 12% soybean oil. The amount of thinning was fairly consistent from year to year, ranging from 34% to 51% when 10% soybean oil was applied, but was less consistent when 5% was applied, ranging from 6% to 40%. Overthinning by midwinter applications of soybean oil occurred in one experiment when bud mortality on nontreated trees was 40% due to natural causes. Mild to moderate spring freezes occurred in three experiments, but did not reduce yield more in soybean oil–thinned than in nontreated trees. Flower bud survival was improved when trees were sprayed with 10% or 12% soybean oil prior to a –4 °C spring frost. Applications of soybean oil to dormant trees thinned flower buds, reduced the amount of hand thinning required, and hastened fruit maturity.

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Renae E. Moran, Dennis E. Deyton, Carl E. Sams, Charles D. Pless and John C. Cummins

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] oil was applied to apple trees [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] as a summer spray in six studies to determine if it controls European red mites [Panonychus ulmi (Koch.)], how it affects net CO2 assimilation (A), and if it causes phytotoxicity. Sprays of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% soybean oil {TNsoy1 formulation [soybean oil premixed with Latron B-1956 (LAT) spreader-sticker at 10 oil: 1 LAT (v/v)]} reduced mite populations by 94%. Sprays of 1% and 2% soybean oil reduced mite populations to three and four mites per leaf, respectively, compared to 25 per leaf on water-sprayed plants. Soybean oil concentrations of 1.0% and 1.5% applied to whole trees reduced A for less than 7 days. Phytotoxicity did not occur when soybean oil was applied with an airblast sprayer at concentrations of 1.0% and 1.5% or with a mist bottle at 2%. Phytotoxicity occurred when soybean oil was applied with a mist bottle at 4% and 6%, which left soybean oil leaf residues of 0.22 to 0.50 mg·cm-2. No phytotoxicity occurred with 4% SunSpray, which resulted in a mean leaf residue of only 0.13 mg·cm-2. Spraying 1% soybean oil tended to give better mite control than 1% SunSpray Ultra-Fine oil, but caused greater oil residues and a greater reduction in A.