Sweet corn seedlings (Zea mays L. var. rugosa cv. Jubilee) were grown with urea, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and Ca(NO3)2 at linearly increasing increments from 0 to 18 g of N/m of row. The N fertilizers, with 5 g of P from concentrated superphosphate and 5 g of K from KCl per meter of row, were placed in a band 5 cm below seed depth to the side of the seed at planting time in a Honeoye fine sandy loam soil with pH 7.0. Seedlings were sampled ≈30 days after planting for fresh and dry weight and for nitrate N, total N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu. Sweet corn seedlings grown with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4NO3 grew more rapidly than seedlings grown with urea, especially at the high rates of N fertilizers, and much more rapidly than seedlings grown with Ca(NO3)2 at all rates and for two planting dates. Seedlings grown with ≈3 g of N/m of row had the highest fresh and dry weights per seedling. Seedlings grown with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4NO3 had a higher concentration of P than seedlings grown with urea or Ca(NO3)2. Seedlings grown with (NH4)2SO4 had lower concentrations of nitrate N and Ca than seedlings grown with the other sources of N fertilizers. Seedlings grown with Ca(NO3)2 had higher concentrations of Ca and Mg, but lower concentrations of Zn and Mn than seedlings grown with the other sources of N fertilizer.
Effects of lateral movement of soil from tile lines based on soil and plant analysis, plus the effects of applications of ZnSO4 and MnSO4 on the concentrations of Zn, Mn, and other elements in the leaf blades of snap bean plants (Phaseolu vulgaris, var. humiliscv. Bush Blue Lake-47) and on the yield of snap bean pods at harvest were determined. Snap beans were grown across the tile lines and fertilized with five rates of ZnSO4 and MnSO4 fertilizers applied in a band at planting time. The soil decreased in pH and Ca and Mn content and increased in organic matter and Zn with distance from the tile lines. The leaf blades decreased in concentration of Ca and increased in concentrations of Mg, Zn, and Mn with distance from the tile lines. High rates of Zn and Mn fertilizers were required to obtain medium concentrations of Zn and Mn in plants grown over or near the tile lines. Concentrations of 24 to 30 μg of Zn per gram dry weight and 60 to 90 μg of Mn per gram dry weight in the leaf blades of the snap bean plants were adequate for highest yield of pods. Zinc sulfate at a rate of 0.5 to 0.7 g of Zn/m2 produced the highest yield of pods at a distance of 3 m from the tile lines. Applied together, ZnSO4 and MnSO4 produced a yield response similar to application of only ZnSO4. Twenty years after installation of the tile lines, the effects of the tile lines on soil and leaf analysis and yield of pods of snap beans plants extended 2 to 3 m in each direction from the tile lines, indicating that the soil moved laterally.
Succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide, SADH) applied to mature ‘Concord’ grape vines (Vitis labrusca L.) at 500 and 1000 ppm at first and at 50% bloom, was observed to increase fruitfulness and yield by increasing cluster weight. During 7 years cluster weight increases were associated with 2 to 6% decreases in berry size and 14 to 22% increases in berry number. Daminozide did not affect the number of seeds per berry, but did reduce weight per berry. Thus, increases in crop yield of up to 20 to 25% were obtained by increasing cluster weight and not by increasing cluster number. Daminozide increased total acid concentration slightly but had no effect on pH. Soluble solids were reduced by daminozide when yield increases, due to daminozide, were above 2 kg/vine. The effect on soluble solids appeared to result from increased productivity rather than from direct effect of the chemical. Daminozide reduced vine size more at the 1000-ppm than the 500-ppm rate.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sources and rates of N, P, and K fertilizers applied in a band at planting and at several planting dates on the rates of growth and concentrations of elements in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var rugosa) seedlings. Sweet corn seedlings were grown under field conditions at 10 planting dates in a fine silt loam soil. Ten sources and blends of N, P, and K fertilizers were applied at planting time at linear increasing rates of 0 to 20 g of element per meter of row in a band placed 5 cm below the seed depth and 5 cm to the side of the seed row. Seedlings grown with blends of N + P + K fertilizers at 5 to 9 g of N, P, and K elements per meter of row had the greatest rates of growth in dry weight per day. The optimum reference concentrations of elements in the sweet corn seedlings with the greatest rates of growth were: 5 mg nitrate-N, 45 mg total N, 4.2 mg P, 45 mg K, 7 mg Ca, 3 mg Mg, 30 μg Zn, 70 μg Mn, 300 μg Fe, and 8 μg Cu per gram of dry weight of the seedlings.