Among the crops that are usually grown under irrigation, one can mention garlic, which is a product with high demand in Brazil and the world, it is highly valued in the cuisine of several countries, and is an aggregated crop with high economic value. In 2018, this work was conducted in Yellow Red Latosol. The objective was to characterize the structure and magnitude of the spatial distribution of garlic production components and to map the productive components to visualize spatial distribution and to evaluate the spatial correlation between garlic bulb yield (BY) and other variables of the crop: total plant mass (TPM), number of leaves (NL), floral tassel length (FTL), leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW), pseudostem diameter (PD), shoot wet mass (SWM), shoot dry mass (SDM), number of cloves per bulb (NCB), clove mass (CM), root dry mass (RDM), and irrigation (IRR). All these traits were sampled in a 90-point grid georeferenced. Data analysis using statistical and geostatistical techniques made it possible to verify that the production components and BY, TPM, NL, FTL, LL, LW, PD, SWM, SDM, CM, and IRR presented special dependence. The spatial correlation between BY and TPM, LW, and CM showed a moderate spatial dependence.
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Lucas Allan Almeida Oliveira, Paulo Teodoro and Rafael Montanari
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Mario Puiatti, Paulo Teodoro and Rafael Montanari
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the spatial variability of plant production components and the use of an irrigation and fertirrigation management system with controlled deficit affect the yield and incidence of garlic lateral shoot growing (LSG). An analysis of these data through statistical and geostatistical techniques made it possible to verify that the increase in yield is directly related to the height and diameter of the bulb and that the lateral shoot growing is directly related to the increase in yield. Lower water depths and lower nitrogen doses applied during clove differentiation imply a lower incidence of LSG, whereas increased irrigation and fertigation with nitrogen results in lower bulb volumes.
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Domingos Sarvio Magalhães Valente, Isabela da Silva Ribeiro and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro
Some compaction states cause changes in soil structure, resulting in increased soil density and soil resistance to penetration (RP). The objective of this study was: a) to analyze the variability of the studied attributes of the plant and the soil; b) define the linear and spatial correlations between plant and soil attributes; and c) to identify the best attributes that correlate spatially with garlic yield (GY) and lateral shoot growth (LSG) for the elaboration of spatial variability maps. The attributes evaluated were GY, apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC), mechanical resistance to penetration (MRP), soil volumetric moisture (SVM), plant water potential (WP), and LSG. The reach values of spatial dependence to be considered in future studies using the same attributes should be between 8 m for apparent soil EC and 23 m for RP. From a spatial point of view, garlic LSG could be estimated by indirect cokriging with soil RP. Values greater than 3000 kPa of soil RP indicated the sites with the lowest GYs.
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Fernando França da Cunha, Isabela da Silva Ribeiro, Lucas Allan Almeida Oliveira and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro
The objective of this work was to investigate the direct and indirect relationships of morphological variables on garlic bulb yield. The primary components of garlic bulb yield, including clove mass, number of cloves per bulb, and bulb diameter and bulb length, are the variables that affect garlic bulb yield directly. Leaf length and growth of a secondary bulb had a negative correlation to garlic bulb yield. Growth of a secondary bulb also had a negative correlation with the number of cloves per bulb and root dry mass. Irrigation with the deficit, applied at the stage of bulb formation, had a positive correlation with garlic yield and a slightly negative correlation with total plant mass, bulb length, and secondary bulb growth.