Superficial scald of `d'Anjou' pears usually develops after storage of 2 months or longer. MCP application controls scald; however, fruit lose their ripening capacity if the dosage is >30 ppb, but lower dosages cannot control scald substantially. In this study, fruit treated with or without 25 ppb MCP within 2 d after harvest were stored at –1 °C for up to 5 months. After 1, 7, 30, or 70 d of storage, part of the fruit were pulled from storage and treated with 1000 ppm ethoxyquin line spray and immediately returned to the storage, left untreated as non-ethoxyquin control. Incidence of superficial scald along with the concentrations of α-farnesene and conjugated trienes (CTs), and the ripening capacity of fruit were investigated after 3, 4, and 5 months storage. All fruit ripened properly within 7 d of conditioning at room temperature regardless of treatments. Both of MCP or ethoxyquin-1d (ethoxyquin was applied after 1 day storage at –1 °C) alone controlled scald for only 3 months; however, MCP + ethoxyquin controlled scald for 5 months, whenever ethoxyquin was applied between 1 to 70 d after storage. Thus, with 25 ppb MCP treatment, which is simple, with rapid and mass treatment available, a delayed application (up to 70 d) of ethoxyquin becomes effective to control scald. Furthermore, the later application of ethoxyquin within 70 d after MCP treatment, the less incidence of scald was observed. Scald is caused by the CTs oxidation products of α-farnesene. MCP and ethoxyquin inhibited accumulation of CTs of fruit peel by different mechanisms. MCP inhibited the production by influencing ethylene production through control of α-farnesene synthesis; however, ethoxyquin worked by inhibiting the oxidation of α-farnesene to the CTs.
Jinhe Bai, Kristi Barckley, and John Manthey
Pear texture is similar to that of apple—firm and crispy—and is one of the potential alternatives to apple. However, at a crispy stage the taste is flat. Improving the taste of pears is considered the key to the success of pear salad. This study evaluated the effect of harvest maturity on the quality of pear salad. Fruit were harvested at commercial maturity or 1 month delayed. After 2 and 5 months (1 and 4 months for delayed harvested fruit) of storage at –1 °C, fruit were sliced (eight to 10 wedges per fruit), treated with an anti-browning dip, packaged in zip-lock bags (10 pieces per bag), and stored at 1 °C for up to 21 days. Delayed harvested fruit were larger in size (≈12.5% increase in weight), had lower flesh firmness (≈5 N decrease), lower titratable acidity content (≈20% decrease), and a lower phenolic content (≈45% decrease in pulp). There was no significant difference in soluble solids content. After 2 months of storage, ethylene production and respiration rate were initially lower in delayed harvested fruit in either the intact fruit or cut slices, but tended to similar after 7 days in storage. Sensory evaluation results show that about 80% of the panel preferred delayed-harvested fruit over commercial harvest, especially in terms of visual quality (71% to 92%), sweetness (75% to 93%), taste (69% to 92%), texture of skin (61% to 92%), texture of flesh (53% to 92%), and overall quality (73% to 92%) during 21 days of storage at 1 °C. After 5 months of storage, cutting surface was dry-looking in delayed harvested fruit. However, sensory evaluation showed panels still preferred the delayed-harvested fruit. The results indicate that salad quality of pears can be improved by delaying harvest.
Xinhua Yin, Jinhe Bai, and Clark F. Seavert
Single broadcast application of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on the soil surface results in low use efficiency of applied N and P in pear (Pyrus communis) production systems in Oregon and the Pacific northwestern United States. A field experiment was conducted from 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the effects of split fertigation and band placement as alternate N and P management practices in ‘Anjou’ pears growing on a Parkdale loam soil near Parkdale, OR. Measurement and analysis of tree nutrition, fruit yield, quality, and storability, as well as indigenous soil nutrient supply was the scope of the experiment. To evaluate fertilizer management practices on pear growth and productivity, the following four treatments were tested with a randomized complete block design replicated four times: 1) broadcast application of N and P on the soil surface in a 10-ft-wide, weed-free strip centered on the tree row, 2) band placement of N and P on both sides of tree rows in 1 × 1-ft ditches (width × depth), 3) 1 × 1-ft ditches were dug using the band placement equipment, the dug soil was completed returned to the ditch without any fertilizer, and the broadcast application of N and P on the soil surface was applied on a 10-ft-wide, weed-free strip centered on the tree row, and 4) fertigation of N and P split into five equal applications throughout the growing season. Nitrogen and P fertilizers were applied to treatments 1, 2, and 3 at 100 lb/acre N and 55 lb/acre P, while treatment 4 received only 80 lb/acre N and 44 lb/acre P. The 2-year average results show leaf N and P concentrations in the fall were increased by 10.0% and 10.6%, respectively, with split fertigation compared with broadcast application on the soil surface. Band placement increased leaf N by 7.1% relative to broadcast application on the soil surface with soil disturbance caused by band placement. Split fertigation and band placement slightly increased fruit yield, but increased marketable fruit (the total of excellent and very slightly scalded fruit) by 20.9% and 11.1% (absolute value) when compared with broadcast application of N and P and broadcast application of N and P with soil disturbance caused by band placement, respectively, and after 3 months of cold storage. No detrimental effects on fruit weight or reduction in soil amino sugar N were observed from lowering the N and P application rates by 20% with split fertigation. Overall, split fertigation and band placement of N and P can be used to replace single broadcast application on the soil surface on pear orchards to reduce fruit superficial scald during cold storage and improve the use efficiency of applied N and P in the mid-Columbia region of Oregon.
Xinhua Yin, Clark Seavert, and Jinhe Bai
Responses of adult pear to the integrated N fertigation and drip irrigation system have not been documented in Oregon. A field trial was conducted on adult pear at the Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Hood River, Ore., in 2005. Two N and water management systems (integrated N fertigation and drip irrigation system; and broadcast application of dry N fertilizer to the soil surface and microsprinkler irrigation system) were compared on pear cultivars of Bartlett and Golden Russet Bosc, and rootstocks of OH×F97 and OH×F87. The responses of these cultivars and rootstocks to the integrated N fertigation and drip irrigation system were similar. The integrated N fertigation and drip irrigation system consumed 1450 m3·ha-1 of irrigation water during the entire season from May to September, reducing irrigation water use by 73% compared with 5297 m3·ha-1 under the current system—broadcast application of dry N fertilizer to the soil surface and microsprinkler irrigation system averaged over the four cultivar and rootstock combinations. The fruit yield was statistically similar for the integrated N fertigation and drip irrigation system and the broadcast application of dry N fertilizer and microsprinkler irrigation system on the average of the four cultivars and rootstocks. Differences in fruit size and color were negligible between the two N and irrigation management systems. Overall, our results suggest that adopting the integrated N fertigation and drip irrigation system does not cause significant reduction in yield or quality of adult pear; the integrated N fertigation and drip irrigation system could be a profitable and environmentally sound management alternative for pear production.
Xinhua Yin, Clark Seavert, and Jinhe Bai
The effects of in-row groundcover and drip irrigation on mineral nutrition and productivity of sweet cherry are largely unknown in the Pacific Northwest. A field experiment was initialized on the Mel Omeg orchard at The Dalles, Ore., in 2005. This orchard had been managed under microsprinkler irrigation and in-row herbicide application since its establishment in 1998. Two irrigation systems (drip irrigation, microsprinkler irrigation) and four in-row ground management systems (straw mulch, white fabric cover, black fabric cover, and no cover with herbicide applications) were evaluated in a split-plot design with four replicates. Drip irrigation reduced irrigation water consumption by 74% relative to microsprinkler during the entire season from May to September. Compared with no cover, black fabric lowered water use by 8%, and straw mulch and white fabric had a 1% to 3% reduction in water use. Fruit yield was similar for drip irrigation and microsprinkler. There was a trend of yield increase with groundcovers relative to no cover. Fruit firmness, size, and sugar content did not differ regardless of irrigation or groundcover systems. Drip irrigation increased marketable fruits by 5% (absolute value) via reducing fruit surface pitting compared with microsprinkler. Differences in soil-available N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Zn, Mn, Cu, pH, and organic matter were negligible between the two irrigation systems and among the four groundcover treatments. However, drip irrigation resulted in slightly lower concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, B, and Mn in leaf than microsprinkler. Overall, our results suggest that in-row straw mulch and fabric covers and drip irrigation could be feasible management alternatives for sweet cherry production in the Pacific Northwest.
Jin-He Bai and Alley E. Watada
A study was made to determine if induction of modified atmosphere at the time of packaging would be of a benefit to the quality of fresh-cut honeydew cubes because the desired gas levels are not attained immediately or at all during the short holding period in modified-atmosphere packages. Fresh-cut honeydew cubes (2-cm cube) were placed in a plastic container underlaid with a water absorbent packet and the container was sealed with a film. The film is coextruded polystyrene and polyethylene (Cryovac), which had oxygen transmission rates of 1448 and 1903ml/m2 per day per atm at 5 °C and 10 °C, respectively. The sealed packages were given one of the following three treatments: 1) the packages were allowed to form their own natural modified atmosphere (nMAP), 2) the internal atmosphere of the packages was flushed with a gas mixture of 5% O2 + 5% CO2 (iMAP), 3) the film was perforated with a needle to have ten 1.5-mm holes (PFP). The packages were stored at 5 °C, 2 days at 5 °C, and transferred to 10 °C or at 10 °C for 2, 4, 7, 9, or 11 days. Quality attributes and microbial population were analyzed after each holding period. The average gas mixture equilibrated to 7% O2 and 9.5% CO2 in nMAP, was unchanged from the induced atmosphere in iMAP, and was close to the ambient condition (air) in PFP. Honeydew cubes were marketable on days 11, 4, and 4 when held in nMAP; on days 11, 4, and 7 when held in iMAP; and unsalable on days 9, 4, and 7 when held in PFP at 5 °C, 10 °C or transferred to 10 °C, respectively. Development of water-soaked lesions and sour odor were the main factor affecting marketability of the cubes. The decreasing pH, chroma and `L' values and increasing hue angle, mesophilic aerobic microrganism, and yeast population was retarded in both of nMAP and iMAP.
Jinhe Bai*, Paul Chen, Elizabeth Baldwin, and James Mattheis
`Bartlett' pears were treated with 300 nL·L-1 1-MCP at 20°C for 24 h shortly after harvest, and were stored at -1 °C in either regular atmosphere (RA) or controlled atmosphere (CA: 1.5 kPa O2 / 0.5 kPa CO2). After 2 and 4 months of RA storage, or 4 months of CA storage, fruit were pre-conditioned at 10 °C, 15 °C or 20 °C for 5, 10, or 20 days, respectively. Pre-conditioned fruit were then held at 20 °C for 14 days to simulate marketing conditions. Flesh firmness (FF) and extractable juice (EJ) were monitored during the marketing period. The optimal stage of ripeness for `Bartlett' pears was defined to be when FF decreases to 27 N and EJ decreases to 55 mL/100 g. The proper pre-conditioning combinations of temperature and duration were 15 °C or 20 °C for 10 d or 10 °C for 20 d if the fruit had been stored in RA for 2 months, 10 °C or 15 °C for 5 d if the fruit had been in RA for 4 months, and 20 °C for 10 d or 10°C for 20 d if the fruit had been in CA for 4 months, for which combinations the fruit ripened within a week and maintained quality for 14 days at 20 °C. The treatment combinations of lower temperature and/or shorter duration times in pre-conditioning delayed the ripening response of the fruit, and combinations of higher temperature and/or longer duration times in pre-conditioning resulted in a shorter marketing life because of senescence breakdown, in comparison the optimal combinations mentioned above. These results indicate that pre-conditioning regimes for 1-MCP treated `Bartlett' pears are storage atmosphere and time dependent. Generally, CA stored fruit needed more preconditioning (in terms of higher temperature and/or longer duration) than did RA stored fruit.
Elizabeth A. Baldwin, John W. Scott, and Jinhe Bai
Thirty-eight tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes were analyzed for sensory attributes “sweet,” “sour,” and “overall flavor” over 7 years, one to three seasons per year (March, June, and December) as well as for physical and chemical flavor-related attributes including color, sugars, acids, and aroma volatiles (6–7 years). Principal component analysis of the data of nine genotypes showed that for harvest season, December-harvested fruit were generally associated with more acids and sourness perception and less sugars and sweetness perception and, therefore, lower overall flavor ratings compared with June-harvested fruit. March-harvested samples were intermediate. Despite the seasonal variations, there were significant differences between genotypes for sensory perception of sweetness, sourness, and flavor, between seasons for sourness and flavor, and between years for flavor, with some interactions between genotypes, seasons, and years. In addition to sugar and acid measurements, 29 aroma volatiles were evaluated in 33 genotypes over the seasons. Eleven volatiles were found to positively correlate with flavor perception and 13 enhanced flavor along with the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio in a two-predictor model, providing aroma targets for breeders. Among the genotypes evaluated most frequently were the Florida industry standard ‘Florida 47’ and University of Florida hybrid ‘Fla. 8153’ which was released in 2006 and is now marketed as Tasti-Lee®. ‘Florida 47’ was almost always rated lower for sweet and overall flavor compared with ‘Fla. 8153’. On a 1–9 hedonic scale, where 1 was least sweet, sour, or flavorful and 9 was most sweet, sour, or flavorful, average scores over the 7 years were 3.8 and 5.1 for sweet and 4.1 and 5.7 for overall flavor for ‘Florida 47’ and ‘Fla. 8153’, respectively. Other genotypes related to ‘Fla. 8153’, including its parents, were also rated high for sweet and overall flavor compared with ‘Florida 47’ and other commercial cultivars grown in Florida. Correspondingly, sugar measurements were higher, while acid measurements were slightly lower for ‘Fla. 8153’ compared with ‘Florida 47’. Thirteen out of 29 aroma compounds showed differences between these two genotypes, with eight being higher in ‘Fla. 8153’ (including many fruity/floral notes) and four higher in Florida 47 (C-5 and C-6 aldehydes and alcohols giving green notes). This provides a useful chemical model for two genotypes that differ in flavor quality that can be exploited by breeders seeking to improve flavor.
Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth Baldwin, Jack Hearn, Randy Driggers, and Ed Stover
Three citrus hybrids, containing 50% to 75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color, and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. ‘Hamlin’, ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to midseason sweet oranges, along with ‘Dancy’ tangerine (Citrus reticulata), a typical mandarin, were used for comparison. Fruit were picked on 23 Jan. 2014, 30 Dec. 2014, and 27 Jan. 2015. A total of 114 volatiles were detected and separated into seven groups by detection frequency: three groups with 43 volatile components did not show differences and thus contributed little information for classification of sweet orange vs. mandarin, and the remaining four groups with 71 volatiles contributed to distinctions between orange and mandarin. Among the hybrids, the pattern of volatile detection frequency for hybrid FF-1-74-52 was virtually identical to sweet orange, and cluster analysis agreed with the classification. The number of average peaks were 55 to 62 in sweet oranges, 67 in FF-1-74-52, and 17 to 37 in tangerine and other hybrids. Quantity analysis of individual volatiles and chemical classes indicated that FF-1-74-52 and sweet oranges were rich in total volatile abundance, and almost all chemical classes including mono and sesquiterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and esters. This was especially true for ethyl butanoate, which contributes a fruity top note, and valencene and all sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, which only contribute to citrus flavor indirectly through their contribution to headspace partitioning. Two other hybrids, FF-1-75-55 and FF-1-76-51, each had some similarity to sweet oranges in several chemicals and classes, but not in the overall volatile profile. All three sweet orange–like hybrids met the standards for mandarins and oranges in soluble solids content, titratable acidity (TA), and the ratio. The above volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical profile comparisons strongly support a proposal to classify FF-1-74-52 as a “sweet orange” commercially, and all three hybrids were previously shown to be more similar to sweet orange in their volatile profile than is ‘Ambersweet’. ‘Ambersweet’ was a hybrid that was legally classified as a “sweet orange” in 1995 based on its volatile profile.
Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth Baldwin, Jack Hearn, Randy Driggers, and Ed Stover
Six ‘Ambersweet’-derived hybrids, similar to sweet orange fruit size, color, and taste and potential as new sweet orange cultivars, were selected to determine their fruit categorization by comparison of their volatile profiles with the parent and ‘Hamlin’, a typical sweet orange. All hybrids are at least ½ sweet orange and varying amounts of mandarin, grapefruit, Poncirus trifoliata, and sour orange in each pedigree. In total, 135 volatiles were detected in the eight hybrid lines/commercial cultivars over two harvests, and 20 compounds were detected in all samples, including terpenes (limonene, β-myrcene, α-pinene, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, and linalool), esters (ethyl butanote, ethyl pentanoate, and ethyl acetate), aldehydes (acetaldehyde, hexanal, and nonanal), and alcohols (ethanol and hexanol). Total abundance of volatiles in January-harvested fruits averaged 30% higher than for fruits of the same trees harvested in November. ‘Ambersweet’ contained the highest total amount of volatiles (mainly as a result of very high levels of monoterpenes), and of them, nootkatone and six other compounds were not detected in any of the hybrids, and some of them were also not detected in ‘Hamlin’. On the other hand, 12 compounds, including pentanal, ethyl 2-butenoate, and ethyl nonanoate, were not detected in ‘Ambersweet’ but were found in ‘Hamlin’ and some of the hybrids. Cluster analysis separated the cultivar/hybrid and harvest time combinations into three clusters. FF-1-76-50, FF-1-76-52 and January FF-1-75-55, all with the same parents (‘Ambersweet’ × FF-1-30-52), were close to FF-1-65-55, but they were separated from ‘Hamlin’ and further separated from ‘Ambersweet’. The cluster containing ‘Hamlin’ has three subclusters: January ‘Hamlin’ and November FF-1-74-14, a hybrid with one-eighth P. trifoliata, which includes a slight off-flavor frequently found in P. trifoliata hybrids, independent of each other, and both were separated from a group of November ‘Hamlin’, FF-1-64-97, and FF-1-75-55. The cluster containing ‘Ambersweet’ included January FF-1-64-97. A principle component analysis (PCA) separated ‘Ambersweet’ from all hybrids and ‘Hamlin’ along the PC1 axis and separated November harvests from January harvests along PC2. This volatile analysis supports the classification of the hybrids as sweet orange.