Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jianxiu Liu x
Clear All Modify Search

Centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack] is a native grass of China, and information on soil adaptation ranges, including acid soils, among centipedegrass cultivars is limited. Therefore, objectives of this study were 1) to conduct a preliminary evaluation of relative aluminum tolerance of 48 centipedegrass accessions plus a cultivar, TifBlair, and a common centipedegrass under aluminum (Al) stress (0 and 1500 μM Al) by using a solution culture method; and 2) to determine Al effects on nutrient uptake between resistant-group and sensitive-group accessions among the 50 accessions and cultivars. Differences were found among accessions and cultivars, and the CV of relative root weight, relative shoot weight, and relative total weight were 39.9%, 32.9%, and 33.6%, respectively. After growing 28 days in an acid subsoil, the resistant-group accessions showed much better growth than the sensitive-group accessions. The Al concentrations in roots and shoots of the two groups of accessions were increased under Al treatment, but most absorbed Al remained in roots with greater Al absorption among the sensitive group compared with the resistant group. The concentrations of phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and potassium (K) in the two groups were reduced under Al stress with reductions of 59.3%, 54.8%, 47.9%, and 41.3% in shoots and reductions of 8.70%, 52.5%, 43.2%, and 34.4% in roots, respectively. Under Al stress, differences in P, Mg, and Ca concentrations were found between the two groups; however, differences were not found for K. The resistant-group accessions maintained higher concentrations of Mg and Ca than the sensitive group.

Free access

Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. is a perennial turfgrass for its low management and resistance. To develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for C. aciculatus, we used four Roche 454 pyrosequencing, combined with the magnetic bead enrichment method FIASCO (fast isolation by amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats) to isolate from the C. aciculatus. A total of 66,198 raw sequencing reads were obtained with 4289 sequences (6.48%) were fit for primer pair design. One hundred microsatellite loci were selected to test the primer amplification efficiency in 20 accessions, and out of these, 11 loci were polymorphic. The amount of observed alleles ranged from three to six, with an average of 3.64. Nei’s genetic diversity values ranged from 0.085 to 0.493, with an average of 0.293. Shannon’s information index values ranged from 0.141 to 0.686, with an average of 0.428. Twenty accessions were clustered into three groups by unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). These SSR markers will provide an ideal marker system to assist with gene targeting, cultivar variety or species identification, and marker-assisted selection in C. aciculatus species.

Free access

Molecular genetic diversity and relationships among 86 Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. accessions were assessed using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Twenty-five ISSR markers generated 283 amplification bands, of which 266 were polymorphic. In addition, 576 polymorphic bands were detected from 627 bands amplified using 30 SRAP primers. Both marker types revealed a high level of genetic diversity, with ISSR markers showing a higher proportion of polymorphic loci (PPL; 94%) than SRAP markers (91.87%). The ISSR and SRAP data were significantly correlated (r = 0.8023). Cluster analysis of the separate ISSR and SRAP data sets clustered the accessions into three groups, which generally were consistent with geographic provenance. Cluster analysis of the combined ISSR and SRAP data set revealed four major groups similar to those based solely on ISSR or SRAP markers. The findings demonstrate that ISSR and SRAP markers are reliable and effective tools for analysis of genetic diversity in C. aciculatus.

Free access

Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is a notable warm-season turfgrass. Certain germplasm resources are distributed in the southern regions of China. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic variation of Chinese seashore paspalum resources. Morphological characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to assess genetic relationships and genetic variation among 36 germplasm resources from China and six cultivars from the United States. The results showed significant variation for 13 morphological characteristics among 42 tested seashore paspalum accessions, and that the phenotypic cv was, in turn, turf height > turf density > internode length > inflorescence density > leaf width > reproductive branch height > spikelet width > leaf length > spikelet number > inflorescence length > internode diameter > inflorescence width > spikelet length. According to the morphological characteristics and cluster analysis, 42 seashore paspalum accessions were divided into six morphological types. In total, 374 clear bands were amplified using 30 SRAP primer combinations; among these bands, 321 were polymorphic with 85.83% polymorphism. SRAP marker cluster analysis showed that 42 seashore paspalum accessions were grouped into seven major groups, with a genetic similarity coefficient ranging from 0.4385 to 0.9893 and genetic distance values ranging from 0.0108 to 0.8244. The high level of genetic diversity occurred among Chinese germplasm, and the genetic distance was relatively high between Chinese germplasm and cultivars introduced from the United States. The patterns in morphological trait variations and genetic diversity will be useful for the further exploitation and use of Chinese seashore paspalum resources.

Free access

A static experiment in greenhouse was conducted to investigate the growth of three grasses in high and medium eutrophic water and the effects of their removal on ammonia nitrogen (NH4 +-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3 -N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and the chemical oxygen demand (COD), and compared with cattail (Typha angustifolia). The results showed that 1) the removal efficiency of NH4 +-N, NO3 -N, TN, TP, and COD treated by the four plants in eutrophic water were significantly higher than that in non-plant water. With the extension of treatment time, the concentrations of NH4 +-N, NO3 -N, TN, TP, and COD in the eutrophic water decreased first and then tend to be stable. 2) Cynodon dactylon ‘Tifton 85’ (C. dactylon ‘Tifton 85’), Cortaderia selloana ‘Pumila’ (C. selloana ‘Pumila’) and T. angustifolia absorbed more than 95.7% and 88.6% of TN and TP in eutrophic water, and accumulate more than 89.5% and 82.0% in plants, respectively. However, the ratio of Cortaderia selloana ‘Silver Comet’ (C. selloana ‘Silver Comet’) was significantly lower. 3) The high abilities of these three plants to purify eutrophic water may be directly related to their rapid growth. 4) The comprehensive purification ability of the four plants to eutrophic was significantly different, in the order of C. dactylon ‘Tifton 85’ > C. selloana ‘Pumila’ ≈ T. angustifolia > C. selloana ‘Silver Comet’. These results indicated that C. dactylon ‘Tifton 85’ and C. selloana ‘Pumila’ can be used as alternative plants to T. angustifolia for the purification of eutrophic water. The results of this study can provide new materials and ideas for phytoremediation.

Open Access

Waterlogging (WL) negatively affects plant growth and development, but the physiological responses of turfgrass species to WL are not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine growth and physiological mechanisms of WL tolerance in warm-season turfgrass species. Knotgrass (Paspalum paspaloides), spiny mudgrass (Pseudoraphis spinescens), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) were subjected to 30 days of WL. At the end of the treatment, knotgrass and spiny mudgrass maintained the shoot and root biomass while seashore paspalum and centipedegrass showed reductions in biomass under WL. Root oxidase activity (ROA) was unaffected until after 12 or 18 days of WL but decreased by 14.3%, 17.8%, 32.0%, and 68.7% at 30 days of WL for knotgrass, spiny mudgrass, seashore paspalum, and centipedegrass, respectively. Waterlogging increased root activities of lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase, but generally to a lesser extent in knotgrass and spiny mudgrass. The leaf and root activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were induced after 6 or 12 days of WL, but to a greater extent for knotgrass and spiny mudgrass. At 30 days of WL, the increased leaf and root activities of SOD and POD were higher in knotgrass and spiny mudgrass than that of seashore paspalum and centipedegrass; while centipedegrass showed 37.8% reduction in root SOD activity. The total soluble protein (TSP) concentration remained unchanged in both leaves and roots during the entire WL treatment for knotgrass, while a decreased leaf TSP was found in the other three species after 12 or 24 days of WL as well as in the roots of seashore paspalum and centipedegrass. More reductions in leaf or root TSP were observed in seashore paspalum and centipedegrass than in knotgrass and spiny mudgrass at 30 days of WL. The results indicated that higher ROA, activities of antioxidant enzymes and TSP contributed to WL tolerance of warm-season turfgrass species.

Free access