Information on water relations and water stress physiology of Actinidia chinensis Planch. is scant. We aimed at providing such information by exposing potted 1-year-old plants to reduced irrigation in a glasshouse. The treatments were control (C) receiving sufficient water to replace 100% of evapotranspiration, early (E) reduced irrigation for 13 days earlier in the experiment, late (L) reduced irrigation for 13 days later in the experiment, and recovery (R) undergoing E and L with 5 days of full irrigation in between to recover from E. All plants were fully watered between early and late episodes of reduced irrigation. Soil volumetric water content was lower in E, L, and R compared with C, leading to lower leaf water potential, photosynthetic rate (Pn), and stomatal conductance (gs). Pn was lower in the reduced irrigation vines only when gs was below 0.1 mol·m−2·s−1. High leaf temperature in the glasshouse imposed nonstomatal limitations to photosynthesis as indicated by elevated internal leaf CO2 concentrations (Ci). Following rewatering, the stressed vines showed rapid recovery of leaf water potential and photosynthesis. However, Ci and gs were slower to respond. There was an indication of osmotic adjustment in leaves under reduced irrigation. Discrimination against 13CO2 was the same among the treatments. A. chinensis had better stomatal control under water stress compared with Actinidia deliciosa, for which some information is available. Water stress history in A. chinensis encouraged more drought resistance in the subsequent water stress period, but this was not sustained. Although field performance of A. chinensis under water stress is expected to be better than what we have presented here, long periods of deficit irrigation for this species cannot be recommended.
Tessa M. Mills, Jianming Li and M. Hossein Behboudian
Jianming Sun, Yiming Liu, Xianglin Li and Bingru Huang
Protein metabolism plays an important role in plant adaptation to drought stress. The objective of this study was to identify drought-responsive proteins associated with differential drought tolerance for a tolerant genotype (RU9) and a sensitive genotype (RU18) of tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea). Plants of both genotypes were grown under well-watered conditions or subjected to drought stress by withholding irrigation for 12 days in a growth chamber controlled at the optimal growth temperatures of 23/18 °C (day/night). Physiological analysis demonstrated that RU9 was relatively more drought tolerant than RU18, as shown by the higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and photochemical efficiency at 12 days of drought treatment. Differentially expressed proteins between RU9 and RU18 exposed to drought stress were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS). Several proteins [photosystem I reaction center subunit II, Rubisco small subunit, and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH)] in photosynthesis, respiration, or oxidative regulation exhibited higher abundance in RU9 than RU18 under drought stress. These results suggested the critical importance of energy and oxidative metabolism in tall fescue adaptation to drought stress. Those abundant proteins in the drought-tolerant genotype could be used as biomarkers or developed to molecular markers to develop elite drought-tolerant germplasm in tall fescue and other cool-season perennial grass species.
Tonghua Pan, Juanjuan Ding, Gege Qin, Yunlong Wang, Linjie Xi, Junwei Yang, Jianming Li, Jing Zhang and Zhirong Zou
During the autumn/spring “off” season, yield and quality of tomatoes are often affected by insufficient CO2 and low light in greenhouse production. Although tomato is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables, few studies have investigated the interactive effects of supplementary light and CO2 enrichment on its growth, photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality in greenhouse production. This study investigates the effects of supplementary light (200 ± 20 μmol·m–2·s–1) and CO2 enrichment (increases to about 800 μmol·mol–1), independently and in combination, on these parameters in autumn through spring tomato production. Compared with tomatoes grown under ambient CO2 concentrations and no supplementary light (CaLn), supplementary light (CaLs) and supplementary light and CO2 enrichment (CeLs) significantly promoted growth and dry weight accumulation. Meanwhile, CO2 enrichment (CeLn) and CaLs significantly improved photosynthetic pigment contents and net photosynthetic (Pn) rates, whereas CeLs further improved these and also increased water use efficiency (WUE). CeLn, CaLs, and CeLs significantly increased single fruit weight by 16.2%, 28.9%, and 36.6%, and yield per plant by 19.0%, 35.6%, and 60.8%, respectively. The effect of supplementary light on these parameters was superior to that of CO2 enrichment. In addition, CaLs and CeLs improved nutritional quality significantly. Taken together, CeLs promoted the greatest yield, WUE, and fruit quality, suggesting it may be a worthwhile practice for off-season tomato cultivation.