There is a need to identify postemergence (POST) herbicides for weed control in field-grown caladium [Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent.]. The objective of this research was to evaluate the tolerance of two caladium cultivars Florida Cardinal and Florida Fantasy to POST applications of sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides flazasulfuron, foramsulfuron, imazosulfuron, and mesosulfuron. At 8 weeks after treatment (WAT), ‘Florida Cardinal’ and ‘Florida Fantasy’ treated with the highest rate of imazosulfuron (1680 g a.i./ha) had <10% visual injury, leaf number, height, and tuber weight reduction compared with the nontreated control. Both caladium cultivars exhibited greater susceptibility to flazasulfuron, foramsulfuron, and mesosulfuron as compared with imazosulfuron. The label-recommended rate of flazasulfuron (52 g a.i./ha), foramsulfuron (29 g a.i./ha), and mesosulfuron (15 g a.i./ha) reduced ‘Florida Cardinal’ height 35%, 27%, and 35%, respectively, and reduced ‘Florida Fantasy’ height 43%, 31%, and 21% compared with the nontreated plants, respectively. Caladium tuber weight exhibited a differential cultivar response to the evaluated SU herbicides, except imazosulfuron. The highest rate of flazasulfuron (420 g·ha−1), foramsulfuron (232 g·ha−1), and mesosulfuron (120 g·ha−1) reduced ‘Florida Cardinal’ tuber weight 50%, 65%, and 58% compared with the nontreated control, respectively, whereas these treatments reduced ‘Florida Fantasy’ tuber weight <25%. The mesosulfuron rate required for 20% tuber weight reduction (T20) in ‘Florida Cardinal’ was 2 g·ha−1, but the T20 value was 28 g·ha−1 for ‘Florida Fantasy’. We concluded that the caladium cultivars Florida Cardinal and Florida Fantasy are highly tolerant to the POST applications of imazosulfuron, whereas these caladium cultivars are more susceptible to flazasulfuron, foramsulfuron, and mesosulfuron.
Jialin Yu and Nathan S. Boyd
Jialin Yu, Nathan S. Boyd, and Zhengfei Guan
Many strawberry growers in Florida relay crop vegetables with strawberries or grow multiple crops on the same plastic mulch. The practice can reduce the overall input costs per crop but weed management can be problematic. Field experiments designed as a split plot were conducted in Balm and Dover, FL over two successive strawberry-growing seasons from Oct. 2014 to Mar. 2015 (year 1) and Oct. 2015 to Mar. 2016 (year 2) and two successive muskmelon-growing seasons from March to July 2015 (year 1) and March to July 2016 (year 2). The objectives were to examine the effect of summer fallow programs and the presence or absence of a relay-crop on weed density and strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) yields. Summer fallow programs included leaving the plastic mulch in place and reusing it in year 2, a sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cover crop, or a conventional chemical fallow. Relay cropping muskmelon with strawberries had no effect on strawberry yield. Summer fallow programs had no effect on muskmelon growth and yield in Balm and Dover, as well as strawberry growth and yield in Balm. In Dover, the plastic mulch summer fallow had 22% to 34% lower berry yield in year 2 compared with cover crop and chemical fallow, respectively. In year 2, relay-cropping was more effective in reducing total weed density compared with strawberry monoculture in Dover but not in Balm. In year 2 in Dover, averaged overall summer fallow programs, the total weed density was ≈3-fold less in relay-cropping than strawberry monoculture. Of all the summer fallow programs evaluated, leaving the plastic mulch in place combined with glyphosate was the most effective summer fallow program, whereas the conventional chemical fallow was the least effective at weed suppression. We conclude that relay cropping or double use of plastic mulch for successive strawberry crops are viable options for Florida strawberry growers.
Diego Gómez de Barreda, Jialin Yu, and Patrick E. McCullough
Grassy weeds may reduce cool-season turfgrass establishment after seeding and herbicide use is often warranted. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the tolerance of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to fenoxaprop and metamifop applications at 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks after seeding (WAS). Creeping bentgrass groundcover was reduced from 34% to 71% at 8 WAS from the nontreated by fenoxaprop at 50 g a.i./ha and metamifop at 400 and 800 g a.i./ha at all application timings. Metamifop at 200 g·ha−1 reduced creeping bentgrass cover 10% to 18% from the nontreated at 8 WAS when applied 1, 2, or 3 WAS, but treatments at 4 WAS did not reduce cover. Perennial ryegrass treated with fenoxaprop and metamifop at 800 g·ha−1 at 1 WAS had cover reduced from the nontreated on two and one dates, respectively, whereas tall fescue cover was never reduced greater than 5% from the nontreated. Results suggest applications to creeping bentgrass should be delayed greater than 4 WAS for fenoxaprop at 50 g·ha−1, greater than 4 WAS for metamifop at 400 and 800 g·ha−1, and 3 WAS for metamifop at 200 g·ha−1. Additionally, fenoxaprop applications should be delayed 2 WAS for perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, whereas metamifop could be safely applied at all rates at 1 WAS.
Jialin Yu, Nathan S. Boyd, and Peter J. Dittmar
In Florida, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) is typically grown without a plastic mulch and as a result, weeds are a significant problem in most fields. Experiments were conducted from Nov. 2015 to Apr. 2016 in Balm, Citra, and Parrish, FL, to evaluate weed control and ‘Bravo’ cabbage tolerance to multiple herbicide programs applied pretransplanting (PRE-T), posttransplanting (POST-T), PRE-T followed by (fb) a sequential application at 3 weeks after transplanting (WATP), and POST-T fb sequential application at 3 WATP. PRE-T herbicide treatments of 277 g a.i./ha clomazone, 280 g a.i./ha oxyfluorfen, and 798 g a.i./ha pendimethalin and POST-T herbicide treatments of 6715 g a.i./ha dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA) were ineffective, and weed control never exceeded 70% in Balm and provided <50% weed control in Citra and Parrish at 6 and 8 WATP, respectively. POST-T applications of napropamide + S-metolachlor at 2242 + 1770 g a.i./ha, DCPA + S-metolachlor at 6715 + 1170 g a.i./ha, and S-metolachlor POST-T fb clopyralid at 1170 g a.i./ha fb 210 g ae/ha were the most effective herbicide treatments and consistently provided >70% weed control. In addition, results showed that all of the herbicide treatments evaluated except the PRE application of clomazone at 277 g a.i./ha are safe for cabbage with no adverse effect on yield.