Monochromatic light and wide-band white light both affect plant growth and development. However, the different effects between monochromatic light and addition white light to monochromatic light on the formation, growth, and dormancy of microtubers have not been fully explored. Therefore, we evaluated these effects using in vitro potatoes grown under pure blue and red lights and a combination of blue light and red light supplemented with white light, respectively. Current results suggested that light spectra influenced microtuber formation, growth, and dormancy by regulating potato plantlet morphogenesis, affecting the synthesis and transportation of photosynthetic metabolites, and altering the accumulation and distribution of biomass in various plant tissues. Monochromatic lights and the combined spectra had differing effects. For instance, monochromatic red light induced the growth of more microtubers, whereas addition white light to red light decreased number but increased weight of microtubers. Meanwhile, monochromatic blue light facilitated tuber growth, whereas addition white light to blue light decreased microtubers weight but increased microtuber number. In addition, composite lights of addition white light to monochromatic red and blue lights both extended the dormancy period, and monochromatic blue light shortened the dormancy period of microtubers >300 mg. Therefore, in microtuber agricultural production, specific light conditions may be applied at different growth stages of in vitro potatoes to increase the number of effective microtubers (>50 mg) and to satisfy storing requirement of seed microtubers.