Areca (Areca catechu L.) is a tropical plant with great economic importance. In China, the fruit of areca (betel nut) is produced mainly in Hainan Province. However, the yield of betel nuts was impacted seriously by frequent water deficits in Hainan Province. Drought causes deleterious effects on the growth and development of areca plants, especially on young seedlings, which hampered the extensive planting of areca. In this study, a reagent of a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied into the culture soil and we analyzed its function against drought stress when seedlings were grown under different irrigation levels. We observed that SAP application caused a significant increase in plant weight under severe drought, as well as in the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and actual photochemical efficiency of PSII [Y(II)] index of chlorophyll (chl), indicating the photosynthetic efficiency of seedlings under severe drought (D) was enhanced by SAP. The antioxidant enzyme activity of areca seedlings under D was indicated to be enhanced by the increasing activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), but not catalase (CAT). In addition, SAP even has slight negative effects on the growth of seedlings under adequate water. Our results provide a theoretical basis to improve the viability of areca seedlings under severe drought using SAP, which is urgently needed for the market.
Jia Li, Liyun Liu, Huanqi Zhou and Meng Li
Li Huang, Wan-zhi Ye, Ting-ting Liu and Jia-shu Cao
Cytological features of ‘Aijiaohuang’ chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis) Bcajh97-01A/B genic male-sterile AB line were examined to determine phenotypic reasons for male sterility. The sterile line Bcajh97-01A was found to undergo aberrant cytokinesis during male meiosis. Transcriptional profiling of the flower buds of both fertile and sterile plants was performed at the periods preceding meiosis, at the tetrad to uninucleate pollen period, and at the binucleate to mature pollen period. Transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) from corresponding genes that were expressed in flower buds at these three different stages could be divided into nine classes. We sequenced a total of 14 new TDFs that were differentially displayed at particular pollen developmental stages, including eight genes with unknown or hypothetical functions and six genes showing significant homology with known genes. This characterization of the Bcajh97-01A genic male-sterile line allowed the identification of candidate genes underlying genic male sterility.
Yushu Li, Zongda Xu, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang and Qixiang Zhang
The MADS-box gene SOC1/TM3 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1/tomato MADS-box gene 3) integrates multiple flowering signals to regulate the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Although SOC1-like genes have been isolated from a wide range of plant species, their orthologs are not well characterized in mei (Prunus mume), an important ornamental and fruit plant in east Asia. To better understand the molecular regulation of flower development in mei, we isolated and characterized three putative orthologs of arabidopsis SOC1, including PmSOC1-1, PmSOC1-2, and PmSOC1-3. The phylogenetic tree revealed that these genes fall into different subgroups within the SOC1-like gene group, suggesting distinct functions. PmSOC1-1 and PmSOC1-3 were mainly expressed in vegetative organs and at low expression levels in floral parts of the plants, whereas PmSOC1-2 was expressed only in vegetative organs. Furthermore, the expression level decreased significantly during flower bud differentiation development, suggesting a role for these genes in the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase. Overexpression of PmSOC1-1, PmSOC1-2, and PmSOC1-3 in arabidopsis caused early flowering. Early flowering also increased expression levels of four other flowering promoters, agamous-like 24 (AGL24), leafy (LFY), apetala 1 (AP1), and fruitfull (FUL). Moreover, the overexpression of PmSOC1-1 and PmSOC1-2 resulted in a range of floral phenotype changes such as sepals into leaf-like structures, petal color into green, and petal into filament-like structures. These results suggested that the genes PmSOC1-1, PmSOC1-2, and PmSOC1-3 play an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering in mei, and may have distinct roles during flower development. Our findings will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in mei.
Qiang Zhang, Wenting Dai, Hui Yang, Wenting Jia, Xuefei Ning and Jixin Li
In this study, newly harvested ‘New Queen’ melons were treated with calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) alone or in combination before storage. The results show that respiration rate, ethylene release, activity, and gene expression of pectinases such as polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and pectate lyase (PL) in ‘New Queen’ melons decreased dramatically when treated with 2% CaCl2 and/or 1 μL·L–1 1-MCP. In addition, climacteric behavior and flesh hardness reduction were inhibited. It was also discovered that softer melon flesh was more conducive to the growth and reproduction of decay-causing microorganisms, according to their growth curves in melons that were different in flesh hardness, suggesting inhibiting fruit softening can slow down the growth of microorganisms in fruit flesh and thus reduce fruit decay rate. The combined use of CaCl2 and 1-MCP was more effective in suppressing respiration rate, ethylene release, and protopectin hydrolysis, which could greatly delay the softening, reduce the decay rate, and extend the shelf life of ‘New Queen’ melons.
Wei Hu, Ju-Hua Liu, Xiao-Ying Yang, Jian-Bin Zhang, Cai-Hong Jia, Mei-Ying Li, Bi-Yu Xu and Zhi-Qiang Jin
The banana, a typical climacteric fruit, undergoes a postharvest ripening process followed by a burst in ethylene production that signals the beginning of the climacteric period. Postharvest ripening plays an important role in improving the quality of the fruit as well as limiting its shelf life. To investigate the role of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in climacteric ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening in postharvest banana, a GAD gene was isolated from banana, designated MuGAD. Coincidently with climacteric ethylene production, MuGAD expression as well as the expression of the genes encoding the Musa 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (MaACS1) and Musa 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (MaACO1) greatly increased during natural ripening and in ethylene-treated banana. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis, ripening progress, and MuGAD, MaACS1, and MaACO1 expression were enhanced by exogenous ethylene application and inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Taken together, our results suggested that MuGAD is involved in the fruit ripening process in postharvest banana.