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Ben-Hong Wu, Ning Niu, Ji-Hu Li, and Shao-Hua Li

The most obvious effects of a low leaf:fruit (LF) ratio [two leaves for one cluster per shoot (LF2)] on grape (Vitis vinifera) berries are suppressed anthocyanin biosynthesis in the berry skin, decreased berry weight and soluble solids concentration, and increased titratable acidity. In this study, proteins isolated from berry skins grown under low and high LF ratio conditions, LF2 and LF12, respectively, were characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. A survey of ≈600 to 700 spots from berry skin yielded 77 proteins with differential expression between LF12 and LF2 treatments. Of these, the 59 proteins that were identified consisted of 47 proteins that were down-regulated and 12 that were up-regulated under LF2 conditions compared with LF12 conditions. Most proteins involved in metabolism, energy, transcription, protein synthesis, binding function, signal transduction, and cell defense were down-regulated in LF2 berries, whereas two important enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthesis, chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol reductase, were not detected. Only a few proteins (e.g., two heat shock proteins related to protein fate and nutrient reservoir storage protein) were found to be up-regulated in LF2 berries. This suggested that, with the exception of secondary metabolism, many proteomic events may have an effect on anthocyanin synthesis in the skins responding to LF.

Open access

Wenjing Li, Zihang Zhang, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao

Malus crabapples are popular ornamental plants in the Rosaceae family that have a beautiful shape; colorful leaves, flowers, and fruits; and extensive environmental adaptability. Among crabapples, there are some important varieties with purple-red leaves, flowers, fruit peel, and pulp that can serve not only as excellent landscape varieties but also breeding material for apple varieties with red flesh. In addition, they can be used for the development of products (teas, beverages, and essential oils) as well as the breeding of resistant apple rootstocks, due to the higher antioxidant activity conferred by their rich flavonoid content (Chen et al.,

Open access

Jiayi Ji, Zhenglin Li, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Jianjun Li, Liqiang Liu, Zhe Gao, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao

Ornamental crabapple is a popular landscaping plant worldwide; it belongs to the Malus genus of the Rosaceae family. Ornamental crabapple has been used extensively in gardens, street plantings, and is an important ornamental tree due to its colorful leaves, flowers, fruits, and beautiful tree habit; it has also been used in apple cultivation as a rootstock and pollinator due to its wide adaptability and abundant pollen production (Dudash et al., 2011; Henry, 2007). In addition, its fruits and leaves are processed and used as dried fruit, in drinks, and also medicine because