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Jerry A. Payne

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Bruce W. Wood and Jerry A. Payne

Ground applications of ZnO to large mature pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees in orchards possessing an acidic soil, but with a culturally induced slightly alkaline soil surface zone, were at least as effective as was ZnSO4 for rapidly correcting severe foliar Zn deficiency, improving in-shell nut production, and maintaining kernel quality. Under such soil conditions, light disking of Zn applied at 160 kg·ha-1 from ZnO elevated foliar Zn above the sufficiency level by the second growing season after application; whereas an absence of disking delayed substantial uptake from ZnO until the fourth growing season. ZnO, usually a lower priced Zn source, was as effective as was ZnSO4 for correcting Zn deficiencies via broadcast ground application; however, same season correction of Zn deficiency was best accomplished by the standard practice of using foliar sprays of ZnSO4 rather than by heavy soil applications of either Zn source.

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Jerry A. Payne, Gerard W. Krewer and Ronald R. Fitenmiller

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Bruce W. Wood, Jerry A. Payne and Michael T. Smith

A 4-year field study on pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] provided indirect support of the supposition held by some U.S. pecan growers that air-blast foliar sprays of potassium nitrate (KNO3) plus surfactant enhances nut yield. While these treatments did not measurably influence yield components, foliar K nutrition, or net photosynthesis, they did suppress “yellow-type” aphid populations. While air-blast sprays of water alone suppressed aphid populations, the inclusion of KNO3 plus surfactant provided an additional level of suppression.

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Bruce W. Wood, Jerry A. Payne and Owen Jones

Overcrowding in young high-density pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] orchards has prompted a study of tree transplanting and evaluation of survival and tree performance. Shoot growth and nut production characteristics of 13-year-old `Stuart' and `Farley' pecan trees subjected to different stubbing and pruning treatments and then transplanted with a large tree spade indicated that transplants can survive with little or no pruning if moved when dormant. Shoot regrowth was proportional to the degree of pruning, and nut production was inversely proportional to the degree of pruning.

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Bruce W. Wood, Jerry A. Payne and Larry J. Grauke

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Bruce W. Wood, Larry. J. Grauke and Jerry A. Payne

An assessment of vegetative traits of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] from a range-wide provenance collection indicated the existence of at least two distinct populations within the native range (i.e., provenances north of Texas vs. provenances in Texas and Mexico). Southern most provenances generally broke bud earlier, retained foliage later in the fall, grew larger in height and trunk diameter, had narrower leaflet droop angles, had greater leaflet tilt angles, wider limb angles, greater Zn deficiency, less black pecan aphid susceptibility, and less red coloration to foliage than did northern most provenances. Trees originating from Jaumaua, in northern Mexico, were especially noteworthy insomuch that they were by far the tallest, possessed the largest trunk diameters, the longest foliation period, and lowest Zn deficiency ratings of all provenances. One family within this Jaumaua population also exhibited a high level of cold hardiness. Family heritability (hf 2) estimates were ≥0.48 for trunk cross sectional area, date of budbreak, leaf redness, cold injury, leaflet droop angle, and leaflet tilt angle, and ≤0.39 for late season leaf fall, black pecan aphid susceptibility, zinc deficiency, and branch angle.

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Jerry A. Payne, Gregory Miller, George P. Johnson and Samuel D. Senter