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- Author or Editor: Jennifer DeEll x
Postharvest quality and sensory attributes of organically and conventionally grown `McIntosh' and `Cortland' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) stored at 3C in ambient air or in controlled atmospheres were evaluated. Organically grown apples had higher soluble solids concentration than conventionally grown apples, while there were no significant differences in firmness or titratable acids content. Organically grown `McIntosh' were perceived by sensory panelists as firmer than conventionally grown `McIntosh' at harvest but not after storage, which may have been due to maturity differences. No significant differences were perceived in juiciness, sweetness, tartness, and off-flavor of apples at harvest or after storage.
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of preharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on the development of soft scald in ‘Honeycrisp’ apples. In addition, the effects of preharvest 1-MCP on fruit quality at harvest and after storage were examined. For two consecutive years of study, ‘Honeycrisp’ trees were sprayed preharvest with 1-MCP and fruit were harvested twice during each year. Preharvest 1-MCP treatments had little consistent effect on fruit maturity at the time of harvest. In both years of study, preharvest 1-MCP reduced the incidence of soft scald in ‘Honeycrisp’ apples after air storage at 0 or 3 °C for 5 or 6 months. Soggy breakdown developed only in the second year of study and high incidences were reduced by preharvest 1-MCP treatments. Preharvest 1-MCP often reduced flesh firmness loss in ‘Honeycrisp’ during storage, especially during the second year of study, and with 1-MCP application closer to harvest. Malic acid content was often higher in apples with the preharvest 1-MCP spray closer to harvest. Overall, the most important benefit of preharvest 1-MCP treatments on ‘Honeycrisp’ apples was the reduction in soft scald development. Due to the high potential for substantial fruit losses from this disorder, the use of preharvest 1-MCP sprays on ‘Honeycrisp’ apples could be very advantageous.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid consecutive 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on apple quality and disorders in storage. ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Spartan’ apples were harvested twice from commercial orchards and 1-MCP (1 μL·L−1) was applied postharvest either 1 day after harvest or 1 and 2 days after harvest. Similar fruit from both cultivars were also not treated with 1-MCP, plus an additional treatment of 2 μL·L−1 (double rate) 1-MCP was used on ‘McIntosh’. Fruit were held in either air storage at 0.5 °C for three or six months or in controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage for six or nine months. Overall, 1-MCP treatment improved firmness and acidity retention and reduced internal ethylene in both cultivars. However, ‘Spartan’ stored in CA often maintained these attributes without 1-MCP. ‘McIntosh’ apples treated twice with 1-MCP were often firmer than those treated just once. All 1-MCP treatments substantially reduced superficial scald and there was no difference in scald incidence among the treatments. Core browning was generally reduced by 1-MCP, but fruit treated once with 2 μL·L−1 or twice with 1 μL·L−1 1-MCP sometimes had higher incidence than fruit treated only once with 1 μL·L−1. ‘Spartan’ treated twice with 1-MCP also had higher incidence of internal browning after nine months. 1-MCP increased the incidence of external CO2 injury in ‘McIntosh’ from the first harvest, with fruit treated with 2 μL·L−1 having the highest incidence after six months of CA storage and those treated once with 1 μL·L−1 having the highest incidence after nine months. Storage rots were greatest after six months of air storage and 1-MCP treatments usually reduced the incidence, regardless of treatment. These results suggest that using more than the traditional single application of 1 μL·L−1 1-MCP may improve firmness retention, but there is also some risk associated with increased disorders, especially when storing apples long-term, such as for six months in air or nine months in CA storage.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-oxygen storage and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on disorders and quality of ‘Empire’ apples. For 2 years, ‘Empire’ apples were obtained from commercial orchards during their harvesting period. After cooling overnight at 3 °C, the apples were treated with or without 1-MCP (1 µL·L−1) for 24 hours and subsequently stored in controlled atmosphere (CA) with 2.5 kPa O2 (+2 kPa CO2) or 1.5 kPa O2 (+1.2 kPa CO2) for 8 months at 1.5 and 3 °C for the first and second year, respectively. In the second year, a third group of the ‘Empire’ apples was also held in respiratory quotient (RQ)-based dynamic CA storage (SafePod) that reached 0.6 kPa O2 (+0.5 kPa CO2), and half of these apples were treated with 1-MCP (1 µL·L−1) for 24 hours at 3 °C upon removal after 8 months. All apples were then evaluated for disorders and quality after 1, 7, or 14 days at room temperature (RT, 23 to 24 °C). Substantial external CO2 injury, flesh browning, and core browning (up to 38% incidence) developed in ‘Empire’ stored in 2.5 and 1.5 kPa O2 during both years of study. Storage in 1.5 kPa O2 reduced flesh browning in the first year and core browning during the second year in apples without 1-MCP, as compared to storage in 2.5 kPa O2. 1-MCP-treated apples stored in 2.5 or 1.5 kPa O2 had higher overall incidence of disorders than similar fruit without 1-MCP. In contrast, there was negligible incidence (0% to 1%) of these disorders in ‘Empire’ apples held in 0.6 kPa O2, regardless of 1-MCP treatment upon removal. Storage in 0.6 kPa O2 also resulted in the greatest fruit firmness retention while at RT for 14 days. This regime can provide flexibility to postpone 1-MCP treatment until after storage, to prevent increased susceptibility to disorders during storage, without compromising fruit quality. However, results from the RQ-based dynamic CA with 0.6 kPa O2 were from a single season, and further research is needed to confirm these observations.
This paper reports preliminary results on the postharvest quality and storage characteristics of several scab-resistant apple cultivars. `Novaspy', `Moira', `Priscilla', `Novamac', `Nova Easygro', `Prima', and `Macfree' were stored for 3 months at 3C in air or standard controlled atmosphere (CA; 4.5% CO2 and 2.5% O2) in 1990 and for 4 months at 0C in air, standard CA, or low-O, CA (LO; 1.5% CO2 and 1.5% O2) in 1991. `Moira', `Prima', and `Priscilla' had very limited storage life. `Moira' was susceptible to bitterpit, scald, core browning, vascular breakdown, and storage rots. `Prima' was susceptible to core browning and vascular breakdown and had a high incidence of storage rots in air storage. `Priscilla' had several defects as a result of insect damage and was susceptible to bitterpit and scald. `Novaspy' stored very well and had virtually no physiological disorders or storage rots. `Novamac, `Nova Easygro', and `Macfree' developed few storage rots and were essentially at the end of their storage life after 4 months, regardless of storage conditions. Firmness in `Novamac' decreased substantially in all storage atmospheres, while `Nova Easygro' and `Macfree' were susceptible to core browning and scald.
Berry crops can include a wide variety of plant species, with the most important temperate North American species in the genera Fragaria, Rubus, and Vaccinium. The preharvest factors affecting the postharvest quality of berry crops can be divided into abiotic and biotic factors. Amongst the abiotic factors, mineral nutrition, especially calcium and nitrogen, water, temperature, and light play important roles in postharvest quality attributes such as size, color, firmness, acidity, and sweetness. Amongst the biotic factors, several postharvest pathogens, which are also present as preharvest pathogens, can cause very significant reductions in postharvest quality. Grey mold (Botrytis cinera) is considered to be the most important pre- and postharvest pathogen in berry crops, but other preharvest pathogens (e.g., Alternaria, Colletotrichum, and Rhizopus) can become major problems, depending on other preharvest factors. In some growing areas, the presence of fruit fly larvae in the fresh fruit reduces the postharvest quality. Other biotic factors can be more subtle in their effects on postharvest quality, such as cultivar, pruning, and pollination.
This study evaluated the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) concentration (1000 vs. 625 ppb) and treatment delays (3, 7, and 10 days after harvest) on the ripening and incidence of storage disorders in ‘McIntosh’ apples from three harvest times in 2004. Apples were stored in air at 0 °C to 1 °C for 3 and 6 months or in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage at 3 °C for 6 and 9 months. Apples treated with 1-MCP and held in air or CA storage were firmer than those not treated, but this difference in firmness was less with later harvests, more delay before 1-MCP treatment, and longer storage time. Apples treated with 1000 ppb 1-MCP were often firmer than those treated with 625 ppb after 6 months of storage and/or 7 days at 22 °C. Ethylene and carbon dioxide (CO2) production were reduced in apples treated with 1-MCP, especially in fruit from the first harvest and those treated 3 days after harvest. Fruit treated with 1000 ppb 1-MCP showed a slower increase in ethylene production than those treated with 625 ppb during 14 days at 22 °C after storage. CO2 production was the lowest in ‘McIntosh’ apples treated with 1000 ppb 1-MCP 3 days after harvest, but fruit treated with 625 ppb also exhibited lower respiration than those not treated. Storage disorders were most prevalent in ‘McIntosh’ apples stored for 6 months in air at 0 °C to 1 °C, whereas fruit from the first harvest treated with 1-MCP 3 days after harvest developed the fewest disorders. 1-MCP reduced the incidence of superficial scald, flesh browning, core browning, and senescent breakdown, while 1-MCP concentration and treatment delay had varying effects. This research has provided the basis for Canadian registration of SmartFreshSM use on apples at 1000 ppb 1-MCP and for the requirement that treatment be within 3 days of harvest.
This study evaluated the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on ‘Empire’ and ‘Delicious’ apples (Malus ×domestica) in commercial controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for 12 months and in commercial cold storage for 6 months. Apples were harvested and delivered by growers to a local commercial storage facility. Four different grower lots were chosen for each of three ‘Empire’ and two ‘Delicious’ storage rooms. Fruit were treated with 1-MCP (≈0.8–1.0 ppm) for 24 hours, while control fruit samples were held in a similar nearby storage room. After treatment, control samples were placed with matching 1-MCP-treated samples into either CA (2.5% O2 + 2.5% CO2 at 2.2 °C or 0 °C for ‘Empire’ and ‘Delicious’, respectively) or air storage at 0 to 1 °C. Initial maturity was relatively uniform among the grower lots, with internal ethylene concentration (IEC) averaging less than 1 ppm for ‘Empire’ and 2 to 3 ppm for ‘Delicious’. IEC was lower in apples treated with 1-MCP after air (3 or 6 months) or CA (6, 9, or 12 months) storage, but this effect was reduced after a 14-day ripening period at 22 °C, and was less dramatic in fruit from CA than from air storage. Apples treated with 1-MCP were also firmer than non-treated fruit upon removal from air or CA storage, and this difference became greater with increased poststorage time at 22 °C. 1-MCP-treated apples stored in air had higher soluble solids concentration (SSC), while there was no significant effect of 1-MCP on SSC in fruit held in CA. Core browning developed in ‘Empire’ held in air for 6 months or in CA for 9 or 12 months, and in ‘Delicious’ after 9 or 12 months in CA. 1-MCP decreased the incidence of core browning in ‘Empire’, but increased the incidence in ‘Delicious’. There was no significant effect of 1-MCP on the incidence of internal browning and storage rots, which developed in both cultivars.
The objectives of this research were to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) improves fruit quality and extends shelf life of Ontario greenhouse tomatoes. `Beefsteak' tomatoes between breaker and turning maturity stages were harvested from commercial growers in Leamington, Ontario, and randomly sorted into uniform lots for 1-MCP treatment. Application of 1-MCP concentrations from 0 to 1200 nL/L was done at 22 °C for 12 hours in sealed bags. After treatment, fruit were held at 22 °C. Color change, fruit firmness, and production rates of CO2 and ethylene were followed for a period of 2 weeks. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found in color, ethylene, and CO2 production rates between treatments. However, there were few significant differences among cultivars and growers. This suggests that different tomato cultivars respond similarly to 1-MCP, and that commercial growing conditions and practices may not affect its efficacy. Over the 2-week ripening period, fruit from treatments of less than 300 nL/L 1-MCP exhibited similar color changes while treatments of more than 600 nL/L resulted in blotchy ripening, causing fruit to be unmarketable. 1-MCP treatment led to an increase in the rates of ethylene and CO2 production, two processes correlated with the onset of fruit ripening. This increase was unexpected and other studies showed that 1-MCP delayed the onset of these processes in tomatoes, and inhibited them in other fruits. Tomatoes treated at a maturity between breaker and turning did not respond well to 1-MCP, perhaps due to the ripening process having already begun. This implies that maturity stages earlier than breaker to turning may respond better to 1-MCP, and it may be more beneficial to target greenhouse tomatoes at an earlier maturity.