High-temperature fruit set (heat tolerance) is a critical trait of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars targeted for lowland wet season production in the tropics and subtropics. Heat-tolerant Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) tomato line CL5915-93D4-1-0-3 (CL5915) is a valuable source of heat-tolerance genes for tomato genetic improvement. The gene action of heat tolerance in CL5915 was determined by evaluating the F1, F2, BCP1, and BCP2 of a cross between CL5915 and heat-sensitive line UC204A for fruit set traits in two wet-season trials at AVRDC. Parent-offspring regression of F2-derived F3 (F2:3) family means on the F2 plants from CL5915 × UC204A was used to estimate the heritability of F2 single plant selection for heat tolerance. Mean percentage of fruit set and fruit number per cluster of the F1 and BCP1 exceeded midparent values and were not significantly different from those of CL5915, indicating complete dominance for heat tolerance. Generation means analyses indicated that a model including simple additive and dominance effects adequately explained the inheritance of mean fruit number per cluster both years. For mean percentage of fruit set, a model including simple additive-dominance effects produced an adequately fitting model in the 1996 season but the best-fitting model included an epistatic component in the 1997 season. Heritabilities estimated for fruit set traits in 1996 and 1997, respectively, were: 0.31 and 0.21 for percentage of fruit set; 0.28 and 0.14 for mean fruit number per cluster; and 0.53 and 0.15 for flower number per cluster. The low heritabilities for percentage of fruit set and mean fruit number per cluster under high temperatures imply that single plant selection in the F2 for heat tolerance from crosses involving CL5915 is not effective and that selection should be based on replicated family testing in the F3 and later generations.
Peter M. Hanson, Jen-tzu Chen and George Kuo
Peter M. Hanson, Ray-yu Yang, Jane Wu, Jen-tzu Chen, Dolores Ledesma, Samson C.S. Tsou and Tung-Ching Lee
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is among the most widely consumed vegetables worldwide and an important source of certain antioxidants (AO) including lycopene, β-carotene, and vitamin C. Improvement of tomato for content of AO and overall antioxidant activity (AOA) could potentially benefit human health in many countries. We evaluated 50 L. esculentum and three L. pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill. entries for contents of lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and two assays for antioxidant activity [anti-radical power (ARP) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (ILP)] for 2 years during the same period in south Taiwan. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the AO and AOA measured in this study. Group means of the L. pimpinellifolium entries were significantly higher than L. esculentum group means for ARP, ILP, lycopene, ascorbic acid, phenolics, and soluble solids concentration, suggesting that introgression of alleles from L. pimpinellifolium may have potential to improve cultivated tomato for these traits. Ranking of entries for ILP and ARP were consistent between years, particularly for those entries with the highest means and these assays could be adopted by tomato breeders. Results from ILP and ARP assays were highly correlated (r = 0.82**) and it would be unnecessary to use both assays for tomato. Lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and total phenolics were all positively correlated with ARP. Among AO, total phenolics content was most closely associated with ARP (r = 0.90**) and ILP (r = 0.83**); this suggests that phenolics make a major contribution to AOA in tomato fruit. Fruit size was negatively correlated with ARP (r = -0.74**) and ILP (r = -0.71**), indicating that combining large fruit size and high AOA will be challenging.
Peter M. Hanson, Dario Bernacchi, Sylvia Green, Steven D. Tanksley, Venkataramappa Muniyappa, Attiganal S. Padmaja, Huei-mei Chen, George Kuo, Denise Fang and Jen-tzu Chen
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a heterogeneous complex of whitefly-vectored geminiviruses, is a serious production constraint of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in Asia, the Middle East, and the Americas. In this study we report on mapping of a DNA fragment introgressed into cultivated tomato presumably from the wild species L. hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. and found to be associated with TYLCV resistance. To locate introgressions of wild tomato alleles in TYLCV-resistant tomato line H24, its DNA was digested with six restriction enzymes and probed with 90 RFLP markers evenly spaced throughout the genome. This polymorphism survey revealed the presence of one wild tomato introgression each on chromosomes 8 and 11. Plants of a F2 cross between H24 and a susceptible tomato line were probed with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RFLP) markers linked to the targeted regions and F3 families were developed by self-pollination of F2 plants that carried none, one, or both introgressions in either homozygous or heterozygous states. Plants of F3 families, parents, and control tomato line Ty52 (homozygous for the Ty-1 allele for TYLCV tolerance) were exposed to viruliferous whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) in greenhouses at the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Taiwan, and the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India. Results indicated that F3 families homozygous for the introgression on chromosome 11 were resistant to TYLCV at both locations. Additional probing showed that the chromosome 11 introgression spanned markers TG36 to TG393, covering a distance of at least 14.6 centimorgans. This is the first report of TYLCV resistance in tomato mapped to chromosome 11.
Peter M. Hanson, Jaw-Fen Wang, Olivia Licardo, Hanudin, Shook Ying Mah, Glen L. Hartman, Yuan-Chuen Lin and Jen-tzu Chen
Bacterial wilt (BW), caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum E.F. Smith, is one of the most destructive disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in the tropics. Twenty tomato lines/accessions previously identified as BW-resistant were evaluated for BW reaction in fields providing high disease pressure at Subang, Indonesia; Los Baños, Philippines; Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Kuala Lumpur; Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), Taiwan; and Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Service (TSIPS). Entries also were tested in the greenhouse at the AVRDC with a P. solanacearum strain from Taiwan (Pss4) using a drench inoculation method. Objectives of the study were to identify stable sources of BW resistance for southeast Asian tomato breeding programs, and to determine the correlation between field and greenhouse reactions. Mean entry survival was 21.6% at Subang, 31.9% at Los Baños, 76.7% at the AVRDC, 93.6% at Malaysia, and 93.3% at TSIPS, indicating that most entries were resistant at MARDI and the Taiwan locations but susceptible at Subang and Los Baños. L285 (mean survival = 83.8%) and CRA 84-58-1 (mean survival = 79.4%) were the most resistant entries in the field trials. Mean survival (70.1%) of CRA 66-derived entries was significantly better than the mean of entries with resistance derived from UPCA 1169 or UPCA 1169 plus `Venus' or `Saturn'. Mean survival of AVRDC entries bred in the 1980s (59.4%) was significantly greater than mean survival of AVRDC lines bred in the 1970s (45.7%). The correlation between entry BW percent survival averaged over the five field trials and entry means from drench inoculation in the greenhouse was highly significant (r = 0.70), suggesting that the drench inoculation method is effective in selection for BW resistance.