Floral induction of 10 Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. cultivars (`All Summer Beauty', `Dooley', `Endless Summer', `Générale Vicomtesse de Vibraye', `Lilacina', `Mariesii Variegata', `Mme. Emile Mouillère', `Nikko Blue', `Penny Mac', and `Veitchii') was evaluated to determine the remontant flowering potential. Cultivars exhibiting superior flowering potential could facilitate year-round production of florist s hydrangea and expand the geographic adaptation of hydrangeas in the landscape. Plants were tested under either 8-hour inductive short-day (SD) or 24-hour noninductive extended-day (ED) photoperiods at 24 ± 2 °C. Floral induction of H. macrophylla occurred under both SD and ED but was more rapid under SD than under ED. Shoot length and total number of nodes were significantly different for cultivars, photoperiods, and harvest dates. Significant differences in the floral initiation and development were observed among cultivars. `Penny Mac', `Endless Summer', `Lilacina', `Mme. Emile Mouillère', and `Nikko Blue' displayed significantly greater floral meristem development under SD than all other cultivars. Over the nine-week period, only `Dooley', `Endless Summer', and `Penny Mac' floral development was affected significantly greater by SD photoperiods than ED photoperiods. All others cultivars showed similar floral development under SD and ED. Stage of meristem development was highly correlated with number of nodes, but not with shoot length.
Jeffrey A. Adkins and Michael A. Dirr
Erik C. Fargo and Jeffrey A. Adkins
Development of a reliable method for Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. organogenesis is critical for developing an in-vitro mutagenesis protocol. Container-grown (11.8 L) H. macrophylla `Nikko Blue' plants were maintained in a controlled environment greenhouse, with supplemental lighting (1600 hr to 2400 hr mercury vapor lamp), fertilized with 65 g Nutricote total (18N–2.6P–6.6K, Agrivert, Inc., New York, N.Y.) and hand-watered. To reduce fungal contamination, stock plants were sprayed to run-off biweekly with Alliette WDG (375 mg·L-1, aluminum tris), Bayleton (250 mg·L-1, triadimefon), and Heritage (25 mg·L-1, azoxystrobin). Leaf explants were sterilized with 0%, 10%, 15%, or 20% bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) (by volume) for 10 or 15 min, and stem explants were sterilized with 0%, 10%, 25%, or 50% bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) for 10 or 15 min. About 97% of fungal contaminates were eliminated from leaf and stem explants when treated with 10% bleach for either 10 or 15 min. Leaves were plated on Gamborg B5 media at pH 5.7 containing 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 μM 2,4-D and 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 μM BAP and placed in a controlled environment growth room under a 14-h photoperiod or in a dark growth chamber. Callogenesis followed by root organogenesis was observed on explants treated with a variety of concentrations and combinations of 2,4-D and BAP. Strongest callogenesis was observed on media supplemented with 10 μM 2,4-D. A greater callus concentration was observed along the edges of dark cultured leaf discs. Indirect root induction was greatest on 10 μM 2,4-D.
Michael A. Dirr, Jeffrey A. Adkins, and Richard T. Olsen
Amy Fulcher, Juang-Horng (JC) Chong, Sarah A. White, Joseph C. Neal, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, Craig R. Adkins, S. Kristine Braman, Matthew R. Chappell, Jeffrey F. Derr, Winston C. Dunwell, Steven D. Frank, Stanton A. Gill, Frank A. Hale, William E. Klingeman, Anthony V. LeBude, Karen Rane, and Alan S. Windham
With increased mobile device usage, mobile applications (apps) are emerging as an extension medium, well suited to “place-less” knowledge transfer. Conceptualizing, designing, and developing an app can be a daunting process. This article summarizes the considerations and steps that must be taken to successfully develop an app and is based on the authors’ experience developing two horticulture apps, IPMPro and IPMLite. These apps provide information for major pests and plant care tasks and prompt users to take action on time-sensitive tasks with push notifications scheduled specifically for their location. Topics such as selecting between a web app and a native app, choosing the platform(s) for native apps, and designing the user interface are covered. Whether to charge to download the app or have free access, and navigating the intra- and interinstitutional agreements and programming contract are also discussed. Lastly, the nonprogramming costs such as creating, editing, and uploading content, as well as ongoing app management and updates are discussed.
Amy Fulcher, Sarah A. White, Juang-Horng (JC) Chong, Joseph C. Neal, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, Craig R. Adkins, S. Kristine Braman, Matthew R. Chappell, Jeffrey F. Derr, Winston C. Dunwell, Steven D. Frank, Stanton A. Gill, Frank A. Hale, William E. Klingeman, Anthony V. LeBude, Karen Rane, and Alan S. Windham
Mobile device applications (apps) have the potential to become a mainstream delivery method, providing services, information, and tools to extension clientele. Testing, promoting, and launching an app are key components supporting the successful development of this new technology. This article summarizes the considerations and steps that must be taken to successfully test, promote, and launch an app and is based on the authors’ experience developing two horticulture apps, IPMPro and IPMLite. These apps provide information for major pests and plant care tasks and prompt users to take action on time-sensitive tasks with push notifications scheduled specifically for their location. App testing and evaluation is a continual process. Effective tactics for app testing and evaluation include garnering focus group input throughout app development and postlaunch, in-house testing with simulators, beta testing and the advantages of services that enhance information gained during beta testing, and postlaunch evaluations. Differences in promotional and bulk purchasing options available among the two main device platforms, Android and iOS, are explored as are general preparations for marketing the launch of a new app. Finally, navigating the app submission process is discussed. Creating an app is an involved process, but one that can be rewarding and lead to a unique portal for extension clientele to access information, assistance, and tools.