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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Onions (Allium cepa) produced in southeastern Georgia's Vidalia-growing region are primarily grown from on-farm produced bareroot transplants, which are usually sown at the end of September. These transplants are pulled midwinter (November to January) and reset to their final spacing. This study was to evaluate sowing date, transplanting date, and variety effect on yield and quality of onions. Beginning in the first week of November, onions can be transplanted until the end of December with reasonable yield and quality. For example, in the 2003–04 season, total yield of onions transplanted on 22 Dec. 2003 did not differ from any onions transplanted on earlier dates in November or December. In the 2004–05 season, onions transplanted on 20 Dec. 2004, had lower total yield than onions transplanted in November, but were not different from onions transplanted on 4 Jan. 2005. The propensity of some varieties to form double bulbs can be reduced with later sowing and transplanting dates. Sowing the first week of October rather than the fourth week of September and transplanting in December rather than November can reduce double bulbs in some varieties.

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Onions (Allium cepa) produced in southeastern Georgia's Vidalia-growing region are primarily grown from on-farm–produced bareroot transplants, which are usually sown the end of September. These transplants are pulled midwinter (November–January) and are reset to their final spacing. This study was to evaluate transplant size and spacing effects on yield and quality of onions. Large transplants (260–280 g per 20 plants) generally produced the highest yield. Medium transplant size in the range of 130 to 150 g per 20 plants produced satisfactory yield while maintaining low numbers of seedstems (flowering) and doubled bulbs, which are undesirable characteristics. Smaller transplant size (40–60 g per 20 plants) have reduced yields and lower numbers of seedstems and double bulbs. Increasing plant population from 31,680 to 110,880 plants/acre can increase yield. In addition, plant populations of 110,880 plants/acre can increase yields compared with 63,360 plants/acre (industry standard), but only when environmental conditions favor low seedstem numbers. Seedstems can be high because of specific varieties, high plant population, or more importantly, in years with environmental conditions that are conducive to their formation. ‘Sweet Vidalia’ was the only variety that had consistently reduced quality and high numbers of seedstems. ‘Sweet Vidalia’ has a propensity for high seedstem numbers, which may have influenced results with this variety. A complete fertilization program that included 133 or 183 lb/acre nitrogen did not affect onion yield, regardless of variety or population density.