Daylilies (Hemerocallis sp.) have traditionally been considered to be pest-free. However, a rust disease caused by Puccinia hemerocallidis Thüm. has become an increasing problem in the United States since 2000. The objective of this study was to evaluate daylily cultivars for resistance to daylily rust. From a greenhouse evaluation of 84 inoculated cultivars, 14 (17%) were classified as resistant; 13 (15%) were classified as moderately resistant; 22 (26%) were classified as moderately susceptible; and 35 (42%) were classified as fully susceptible. Several cultivars displayed very high levels of resistance and may be utilized by breeders to develop cultivars with improved resistance to daylily rust. Information about the resistance and susceptibility of cultivars also will help commercial growers and gardeners select cultivars that have the potential to dramatically reduce damaging outbreaks of rust.
Daren S. Mueller, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, and James W. Buck
David R. Sandrock, Jean Williams-Woodward, and Michael A. Dirr
Five taxa of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.], `Blue Sport', `Okefenokee', Raulston Form, `Emily', and `Rachel', and one cultivar of Leyland cypress [×Cupressocyparis leylandii (Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim.], `Haggerston Grey', were screened for resistance to Botryosphaeria and Seiridium cankers. Treatments consisted of Seiridium unicorne (Cke. And Ell.) Sutton, Botryodiplodia Sacc. sp., Fusicoccum Corda. sp. and the non-inoculated control. After 8 weeks, plants were measured for change in caliper at the wound site, change in plant height, and length and width of surface and interior cankers. Seiridium and Botryosphaeria canker development on Atlantic white cedar taxa was not significantly different than that on Leyland cypress. Seiridium unicorne was more pathogenic than Botryodiplodia sp. and Fusicoccum sp. on Atlantic white cedar and Leyland cypress with infection percentages of 100%, 84%, and 80%, respectively. Well-defined, sunken, resinous cankers developed on Leyland cypress plants infected with Seiridium unicorne, whereas Atlantic white cedar showed no visible surface canker.
David R. Sandrock, Jean Williams-Woodward, and Michael A. Dirr
Fifty-four taxa of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were assembled and maintained. A protocol for propagation of Atlantic white cedar was established. Plants were grown in containers and in a replicated field plot. Height and width data were recorded from container- and field-grown plants and all taxa were evaluated for growth habit, growth rate, and summer and winter color. Color descriptions of foliage are provided based on the Royal Horticultural Society colour chart. Exceptional taxa were identified based on needle color, texture, growth habit, and growth rate. Superior green forms include Dirr Seedlings 1 and 2, `Emily', `Rachel', and `Okefenokee'. The superior variegated form is `Webb Gold'. Superior blue forms include `Blue Sport', `Glauca Pendula', and `Twombly Blue', and superior slow-growing forms include `Andelyensis', `Meth Dwarf', `Red Star', and `Heatherbun'. These taxa are recommended to growers, landscapers, and gardeners for production and use.
Katherine M. Solo, Sara B. Collins, Madalyn K. Shires, Ron Ochoa, Gary R. Bauchan, Liesel G. Schneider, Alan Henn, James C. Jacobi, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, M.R. Hajimorad, Frank A. Hale, John B. Wilkerson, Alan S. Windham, Kevin L. Ong, Mathews L. Paret, Xavier Martini, David H. Byrne, and Mark T. Windham
The eriophyid mite, Phyllocoptes fructiphilus, vectors the causal agent, Rose rosette virus (RRV), that results in rose rosette disease. Parts of the southeastern United States have remained free of the disease, except for infected plant material introductions that were eradicated. A survey of sampling points through Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi (n = 204) revealed the southeastern border of RRV. The presence of RRV in symptomatic plant tissue samples (n = 39) was confirmed by TaqMan-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Samples were also collected at every plot for detection of eriophyid mites, specifically for P. fructiphilus. Three different species of eriophyid mites were found to be generally distributed throughout Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Most of these sites (n = 60) contained P. fructiphilus, found further south than previously thought, but in low populations (<10 mites/gram of tissue) south of the RRV line of incidence. Latitude was found to be significantly correlated with the probability of detecting RRV-positive plants, but plant hardiness zones were not. Plot factors such as plant size, wind barriers, and sun exposure were found to have no effect on P. fructiphilus or the presence of RRV. The reason for the absence of RRV and low populations of P. fructiphilus in this southeast region of the United States are unclear.
Amy Fulcher, Juang-Horng (JC) Chong, Sarah A. White, Joseph C. Neal, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, Craig R. Adkins, S. Kristine Braman, Matthew R. Chappell, Jeffrey F. Derr, Winston C. Dunwell, Steven D. Frank, Stanton A. Gill, Frank A. Hale, William E. Klingeman, Anthony V. LeBude, Karen Rane, and Alan S. Windham
With increased mobile device usage, mobile applications (apps) are emerging as an extension medium, well suited to “place-less” knowledge transfer. Conceptualizing, designing, and developing an app can be a daunting process. This article summarizes the considerations and steps that must be taken to successfully develop an app and is based on the authors’ experience developing two horticulture apps, IPMPro and IPMLite. These apps provide information for major pests and plant care tasks and prompt users to take action on time-sensitive tasks with push notifications scheduled specifically for their location. Topics such as selecting between a web app and a native app, choosing the platform(s) for native apps, and designing the user interface are covered. Whether to charge to download the app or have free access, and navigating the intra- and interinstitutional agreements and programming contract are also discussed. Lastly, the nonprogramming costs such as creating, editing, and uploading content, as well as ongoing app management and updates are discussed.
Amy Fulcher, Sarah A. White, Juang-Horng (JC) Chong, Joseph C. Neal, Jean L. Williams-Woodward, Craig R. Adkins, S. Kristine Braman, Matthew R. Chappell, Jeffrey F. Derr, Winston C. Dunwell, Steven D. Frank, Stanton A. Gill, Frank A. Hale, William E. Klingeman, Anthony V. LeBude, Karen Rane, and Alan S. Windham
Mobile device applications (apps) have the potential to become a mainstream delivery method, providing services, information, and tools to extension clientele. Testing, promoting, and launching an app are key components supporting the successful development of this new technology. This article summarizes the considerations and steps that must be taken to successfully test, promote, and launch an app and is based on the authors’ experience developing two horticulture apps, IPMPro and IPMLite. These apps provide information for major pests and plant care tasks and prompt users to take action on time-sensitive tasks with push notifications scheduled specifically for their location. App testing and evaluation is a continual process. Effective tactics for app testing and evaluation include garnering focus group input throughout app development and postlaunch, in-house testing with simulators, beta testing and the advantages of services that enhance information gained during beta testing, and postlaunch evaluations. Differences in promotional and bulk purchasing options available among the two main device platforms, Android and iOS, are explored as are general preparations for marketing the launch of a new app. Finally, navigating the app submission process is discussed. Creating an app is an involved process, but one that can be rewarding and lead to a unique portal for extension clientele to access information, assistance, and tools.
Amy Fulcher, Anthony LeBude, Sarah A. White, Matthew R. Chappell, S. Christopher Marble, J.-H (J.C.) Chong, Winston Dunwell, Frank Hale, William Klingeman, Gary Knox, Jeffrey Derr, S. Kris Braman, Nicole Ward Gauthier, Adam Dale, Francesca Peduto Hand, Jean Williams-Woodward, and Steve Frank
Extension and research professionals in the southeastern United States formed the Southern Nursery Integrated Pest Management working group (SNIPM) to foster collaboration and leverage resources, thereby enhancing extension programming, increasing opportunity, and expanding the delivery of specialized expertise to nursery crop growers across a region. Building a productive and lasting working group requires attracting a group of research and extension faculty with complementary expertise, listening to stakeholders, and translating stakeholder needs into grant priorities to help solve problems, all hallmarks of effective teamwork principles. SNIPM has now grown to include 10 U.S. states and 11 institutions and has been awarded seven grants totaling $190,994 since 2009. A striking benefit of working group membership was observed over time: synergy. Greater awareness of individual expertise among SNIPM members, each of whom were focused on different aspects of the nursery production system stimulated multistate extension publications, electronic books (eBooks), mobile device applications (apps), popular press articles, and spin-off research projects when separate foci were combined and directed toward complex challenges. Deliverables achieved from this faculty collaboration include nine peer-reviewed publications, four manuals and books and 23 book chapters, and a combined total of 11 abstracts, conference proceedings and extension publications. To date, the return on investment for SNIPM is one deliverable produced to every $2265.89 in grant funding. SNIPM has also been honored with multiple American Society for Horticultural Science publication awards as well as the Southern Region Integrated Pest Management Center Bright Idea Award for the quality and originality of their project outputs. Continuing to work together toward common goals that bridge technology and serve the nursery industry while supporting each individual member’s program will be crucial to the long-term success of this working group.