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  • Author or Editor: Jay W. Scott x
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Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a Begomovirus in the family Geminiviridae, is an important disease of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in many parts of the world. Disease is managed primarily by chemical control of the vector, the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), and by growing resistant varieties. Resistance derived from the cultivar Tyking is being used in many breeding programs, but the location of resistance factors has not been reported. The breeding lines Fla. 8753 and Fla. 344 both have high levels of resistance to TYLCV derived from ‘Tyking’ and from S. chilense accession LA 1938, but none of their parent lines contain any of the known genes Ty-1 to Ty-4. An additional resistance locus, Ty-5, was recently identified, and to determine if this locus controls TYLCV resistance in Fla. 8753 and Fla. 344, appropriate segregating populations were analyzed using the Ty-5 marker, SlNAC1. Results show that SlNAC1 cosegregates with a recessive allele derived from ‘Tyking’. We suggest the gene symbol ty-5 be used to describe this gene. Mean disease severity of progeny homozygous for either the resistant or susceptible alleles did not equal parental levels of resistance and susceptibility, respectively, suggesting the involvement of an additional gene that is likely derived from LA1938.

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Solanum habrochaites S. Knapp and D.M. Spooner accession LA1777 have reported resistance to the sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF), Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). An interspecific F2 population of 171 plants between tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L. (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)] and LA1777 was bioassayed against adult SPWF in a greenhouse using clip cages. A selective genotyping analysis was used with 11 resistant and 10 susceptible plants to locate resistance genes by testing them with molecular markers spanning most of the tomato genome at about 10-cM intervals. Markers in four regions were found to be associated with resistance, where three of them showed significantly strong associations and one showed a weak association through chi-square and analyses of variance. However, through quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using molecular markers, all four regions were identified as major QTLs with logarithm of odds (LOD) values of 4.87 to 5.95. The four QTLs were identified near the markers TG313 on chromosome 10, C2_At2g41680 on chromosome 9, TG523/T0408 on chromosome 11, and TG400/cLEG-37-G17 on chromosome 11. Multiple regression analysis produced similar results as above with fixed effects of single loci as well as interaction among some of the QTLs.

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Resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to bacterial spot race T4 (Xanthomonas perforans) was characterized by generation means analysis (GMA) in three advanced breeding lines: Fla. 8326, Fla. 8233, and Fla. 8517. GMA of Fla. 8326 for two of three seasons (Fall 2006 and Summer 2007) indicated that resistance is mostly dominant with significant additive and epistatic effects. GMA of Fla. 8233 in Spring 2007 and of Fla. 8517 in Summer 2007 also showed dominance to be the main effect in addition to additive and epistatic effects. Duplicate dominance or recessive suppressor type epistasis was indicated in each breeding line. Transgressive segregation was not clearly observed in F2 populations of crosses between resistant parents, suggesting that these lines have quantitative trait loci in common.

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Resistance to begomoviruses, including bipartite tomato mottle virus (ToMoV) and monopartite tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), has been introgressed to cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) from Solanum chilense accessions LA1932 and LA2779. A major gene, Ty-3, responsible for resistance to ToMoV and TYLCV was previously mapped on the long arm of chromosome 6. In the present study, we identified a 14-cM S. chilense introgression on the long arm of chromosome 3 in some resistant breeding lines derived from LA1932. A new begomovirus resistance locus, Ty-4, was mapped to the 2.3-cM marker interval between C2_At4g17300 and C2_At5g60160 in the introgression. Analysis of a population segregating for Ty-3 and Ty-4 demonstrated that Ty-3 accounted for 59.6% of the variance, while Ty-4 only accounted for 15.7%, suggesting that Ty-4 confers a lesser effect on TYLCV resistance. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) with Ty-3 and Ty-4 had the highest level of TYLCV resistance. The PCR-based markers tightly linked to the Ty-4 locus as well as the Ty-3 locus have been recently used in our breeding program for efficient selection of high-levels of begomovirus resistance and now allow for efficient breeding by marker-assisted selection.

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Ten fresh market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes were evaluated for yield stability in 7 environments within Florida. Genotype × environment interaction was significant for yield of marketable fruit. Linear relationships between mean yields of individual genotypes and environmental mean yields were evaluated to determine genotype stability. Mean square deviations from linear regression (s2d), regression coefficients (b1) and coefficient of linear determination (R 2) were used to evaluate phenotypic stability. ‘Sunny’, Castlehy 1035’, ‘Burgis’, ‘FTE 12’, and ‘Duke’ were considered stable and high yielding. An advanced breeding line, 827015-IBK, was considered stable but low yielding. ‘Hayslip’, D76127, ‘Flora-Dade’, and ‘Walter PF’ were considered unstable. This study suggests that yield stability differences occur among fresh market tomato genotypes. Therefore, selection of tomato genotypes for improved adaptability should be considered in tomato breeding programs.

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