Glyphosate is routinely used to eradicate existing turf in golf course fairway renovations. However, current label recommendations suggest delaying cultivation of glyphosate treated areas for 7 days. A 2-year field study was conducted to assess how various seedbed preparation techniques (i.e., verticutting, core-cultivation, or verticutting + core-cultivation) influence glyphosate efficacy on creeping bentgrass fairway turf when completed at various intervals shortly after application [0–7 days before cultivation (DBC)]. Percent green cover declined from initial values of ≈90% to ≤0.2% at the end of the study after glyphosate application at all timings, regardless of cultivation during both years. All cultivated plots had 37.9% to 72.3%, or 5.9% to 62.1% less green cover compared with noncultivated plots when glyphosate was applied ≤3 days before cultivation in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Generally, the number of days until green cover reached 1% (GC1) ranged from 6.6 to 11.1 in 2014 and 5.2 to 6.9 in 2015. Within glyphosate application timings, no differences in GC1 were observed between cultivated and noncultivated treatments in 2014, except at 0 DBC. The GC1 for verticutting was 5.1 days longer than noncultivated plots; however, all other cultivation treatments were equivalent to noncultivated plots when glyphosate was applied 0 DBC. All cultivation treatments reduced GC1 1.7 to 2.5 days compared with the no cultivation treatment, regardless of glyphosate application timing in 2015. Results from this study indicate that cultivation of creeping bentgrass fairway turf within 7 days of glyphosate application is not detrimental to long-term herbicide efficacy, and in some cases may actually enhance the rate of decline of glyphosate treated creeping bentgrass.
This study examined how different presentation formats affected knowledge gain among school grounds managers. Results indicate large-group participants (presentation to ≈50 participants at a turfgrass field day) had greater knowledge retention than small-group participants (presentation to 6–10 participants at an interactive workshop). Small-group attendees had more flexibility to discuss issues that affected them directly and may have focused on those issues instead of the targeted information. Large-group meetings were more ridged in format and attendees were less able to deviate from the main subject matter being presented. However, the value of the small-group meeting should not be discounted, especially when athletic field grounds managers and staff require information specific to their situation. When disseminating more general information, the large-group meeting format is a better means of delivery.