Seeds of two tepary bean lines (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray var. latifolius) and one navy bean cultivar (P. vulgaris L. `Fleetwood') were tested with 0.0-, – 0.3-, –0.6-, -0.9-, -1.2-, or – 1.5-MPa NaCl solutions to determine their relative salt tolerance during germination and emergence. Developmental stage was not affected at – 0.3 MPa, but with salinities more negative than -0.9 MPa, `Fleetwood' developed more slowly than the tepary lines; no plants emerged at – 1.5 MPa. Teparies tended to maintain higher water and osmotic potentials than navy over the range of NaCl concentrations used, although turgor was similar for all three genotypes. Leaf area was reduced more in navy than in white tepary at – 0.6 and – 0.9 MPa. Dry weights of navy were higher than those of either tepary bean at all NaCl concentrations, although decreases at higher salinities relative to 0.0 MPa were greater for navy than for teparies. Root: shoot ratios were higher at – 0.3 MPa than at 0.0 MPa, but were lower at the higher NaCl concentrations for all three genotypes. Overall, tepary beans tolerated NaCl better than navy. The characteristic that best indicated differences in salt tolerance was developmental stage.
Steven H. Goertz and Janice M. Coons
Janice M. Coons, Robert O. Kuehl and Nancy R. Simons
Water that may contain salt often is used to cool soil to help overcome high-temperature inhibition of lettuce germination. This study was done to determine how lettuce cultivars differ in their germination response to high temperature and NaCl. Ten lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars (Grand Rapids, Climax, Coolguard, Empire, Great Lakes 659-700, Mesa 659, Salinas, Vanguard 75, Red Coach 74, and Wintersupreme) were germinated at 20, 25, 30, or 35C with 0.0, - 0.3, - 0.6, - 0.9, - 1.2, or - 1.5 MPa NaCl. With no NaCl, germination percentages and rates decreased significantly at 35C for all cultivars except `Salinas', which decreased at 30C. With higher concentrations of NaCl, decreases in germination percentages and rates were observed at lower temperatures. Cultivar differences in response to temperature were present with no NaCl but became larger in the presence of NaCl. `Great Lakes 659-700' and `Mesa 659' were most sensitive to high temperature and salt. `Coolguard' and `Empire' were most tolerant to high temperature and salt, with some tolerance also present in `Grand Rapids' and `Vanguard 75'. Relative tolerance of cultivars to NaCl as shown by germination percentages and rates was consistent with growth of roots.
Marla K. Faver, Janice M. Coons and John A. Juvik
Supersweet corn has problems establishing a stand, a problem that is related to a damaged pericarp that allows leakage from seeds during imbibition. This study compared seed vigor and sugar leakage of sweet corn isolines with different endosperms. Isoline pairs (C68, IaS125, Ia453, Il442a, and Oh43) of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa) with two endosperms (sul or sh2) were used. Seeds were germinated at 10, 15, or 20C. Seeds also were planted in Urbana, Ill., where seedling growth was measured. Seeds also were soaked in water for 24 h, and then leachate was analyzed for sugars (anthrone method) and for sucrose, fructose, and glucose (HPLC). No seeds germinated at 10C. At 15 and 20C, more sul seeds germinated than sh2 seeds in most cases. In fields, sul plants were more vigorous than sh2 plants based on emergence, plant height, leaf number, weight, and leaf area. More sugars leaked from sh2 than sul seeds. More sucrose leaked from sh2 than sul seeds in all but two isolines, where none leaked. More fructose leaked from sh2 than sul seeds in all but two isolines, where no differences occurred. More glucose leaked from sh2 than sul seeds only in Oh43.
Lynze Greenwood, Janice M. Coons, Henry R. Owen, Lisa Ferguson and Ronglin Wang
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most important U.S. fresh-market vegetables with year-round consumption. For winter markets, lettuce is produced in the southwestern states with plantings in early fall when soil temperatures are high. Seed germination of lettuce, however, is inhibited by soil temperatures over 25 °C. The objective of this study was to test the emergence and growth of five lettuce cultivars using two seedlots produced in winter or summer to provide information for improving stand establishment at high temperatures. Seeds of five cultivars (`Empire', `Parris Island Cos', `Waldmann's Green', `Prizehead', and `Dark Green Boston') produced in Yuma, Ariz., during summer or winter months were used. Seeds were planted in a greenhouse mix in plastic trays and grown in a growth chamber at 23, 25, 30 and 35 °C. After 4 weeks, number of emerged plants, number of leaves, height, fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area were measured. At lower temperatures (23 and 25 °C), more plants emerged and plants developed more rapidly than at higher temperatures (30 and 35 °C). More plants emerged of `Empire' and `Parris Island Cos' than of `Waldmann's Green' or `Dark Green Boston'. Growth varied greatly for the different cultivars. At 35 °C, only `Empire' winter seed emerged. At other temperatures, summer seed lots generally were better than or equal to winter seedlots. This information suggests that seeds developed during the summer are more vigorous at emergence than those developed during the winter.