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James S. Beaver and Juan Carlos Rosas

Heritability of length of the reproductive period and rate of seed mass accumulation in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was estimated using 170 randomly derived F6 and F7 lines from three populations evaluated in the field in Puerto Rico and Honduras during two growing seasons. Narrow-sense heritability for length of reproductive period ranged from moderate (0.43) to high (0.83), and transgressive segregation for shorter and longer reproductive period was observed for the three populations. Heritability of rate of seed mass accumulation was low (0.24) to intermediate (0.49). Lines with high yield potential, which matured 4 to 7 days earlier than the later parents L227-1 and `Catrachita', were selected. Most of the superior lines combined earlier maturity with high yield potential by having greater rates of seed mass accumulation than the early parents `Cuarentena' and `Cuarenteño'. Low to intermediate heritabilities for rate of seed mass accumulation suggest that selection for this trait would be more effective by evaluating advanced generation lines in replicated trials. Several lines yielded significantly more than L227-1 or `Catrachita' by combining long reproductive period with fast rate of seed mass accumulation.

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James S. Beaver, James R. Steadman and Dermot P. Coyne

Field reaction of 25 red mottled bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes to common bacterial blight [Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye] was evaluated in Puerto Rico over 2 years. The average disease severity (percent leaf area with symptoms) was similar over years. The determinate red mottled genotypes had almost twice as much disease as indeterminate genotypes. Eight of the indeterminate genotypes had significantly less disease than the mean of the field experiments. These genotypes may serve as useful sources of resistance to common bacterial blight. The size of the chlorotic zone around necrotic lesions varied between growing seasons, showing that environment can influence the expression of common bacterial blight symptoms.

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Dyremple B. Marsh, Wayne McLaughlin and James S. Beaver

Methods to improve the grain yield of red kidney bean without the addition of commercially fixed nitrogen will have significant benefits to farmers in Jamaica and other tropical regions. Red kidney beans provide a major portion of the dietary protein for most families in these regions. Our experimental objective was to evaluate the nitrogen fixing capabilities of several breeding lines of Phaseolus vulgaris when inoculated with Rhizobium strains isolated from Jamaican soils. Surface sterilized seeds of 11 Phaseolus lines were inoculated with inoculum prepared from 5 day old Rhizobium YEM mixture. Rhizobium used were T2 and B17 from Jamaica and UMR 1889. The greenhouse study was arranged as a completely randomized design. Bean lines 9056-101, 9056-98B, 8954-5 and 8954-4 showed improved nodulation and N2 fixation when inoculated with UMR 1899. The combination of breeding line 8954-5 and Rhizobium strain B17 produced the highest nodule number and shoot dry weight of 193 and 0.72 g, respectively. The Rhizobium strain B17showed some ability to compete successfully for nodule sites against known effective strains.

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Karl J. Sauter, David W. Davis and James S. Beaver

184 random F2 plants from a high temperature (HT) sensitive X HT tolerant snap bean cross were advanced to the F5 by single seed descent. At anthesis and after HT pre-treatment, all plants in each generation were evaluated in the laboratory for leaf ethylene evolution (EE), % viable pollen (VP), and leaf cell membrane thermostability (CMT). Population means among generations differed significantly for VP and CMT in a paired t-test, while EE means in the F3, F4, and F5 were similar. Correlations among traits were very low (≤.25) with a consistent negative correlation between VP and the others (high VP is a positive trait while low EE and CMT are considered positive). VP and total pollen were highly correlated (r≤.81). To determine if the 3 traits might predict HT tolerance in the field, F5-derived F6 lines were grown at Becker, MN (control), and Isabella, PR (HT environment). Yield component data were collected at both locations. Tolerance may be computed as % yield of the lines in the HT vs. the control environment for any or all of the yield components. Regression analysis showed a very low r2 (≤.16) when EE, VT, and CMT were used to predict tolerance as estimated by pod production. However, as expected, the F5 best predicted F6 performance. Further results from Minnesota field and greenhouse and from Puerto Rico field data will be discussed.

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Carlos A. Urrea, Phillip N. Miklas and James S. Beaver

High levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp) have been observed for tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray var. latifolius Freeman). However, the inheritance of resistance from this source is unknown for many lines. The inheritance of common bacterial blight resistance was studied in four tepary bean lines crossed with the susceptible tepary bean MEX-114. Progenies were inoculated with a single Xcp strain 484a. Segregation ratios in the F2 generation suggested that resistance in Neb-T-6-s and PI 321637-s was governed by one dominant gene, and Neb T-8a-s had two dominant genes with complementary effects. These hypotheses for inheritance of resistance were supported by various combinations of F1, F3, BC1Pn segregation data in all lines except PI 321637-s where an additional minor-effect gene with recessive inheritance was indicated. Generation means analyses corroborated that multiple resistance genes were present in PI 321638-s. Lack of segregation for susceptibility among testcrosses for allelism between Neb-T-6-s/PI 321637-s, Neb-T-6-s/Neb-T-8a-s, PI 321637-s/Neb-T-8a-s, and PI 321637-s/PI 321638-s, suggested that one or more loci conditioning resistance to common bacterial blight were in common across the four tepary lines.

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Timothy G. Porch, James R. Smith, James S. Beaver, Phillip D. Griffiths and Craig H. Canaday

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Haytham Z. Zaiter, Dermot P. Coyne, James R. Steadman and James S. Beaver

Genetic variation for abaxial leaf pubescence was detected among dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars/lines. Inheritance of pubescence (long, straight hairs) was studied in the dry bean crosses of pubescent `Pompadour Checa-50' (Dominican Republic) × eight glabrous cultivars/lines. Segregation for pubescence vs. glabrousness indicated that pubescence was determined by a single major gene or by duplicate recessive epistatic genes, depending on the cross involved. Trichome density (number trichomes per mm) was a quantitative trait. Thus, pubescence was a discrete trait, but trichome density ranged from low to high.

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Maricelis Acevedo Román, Albeiro Molina Castañeda, Juan Carlos Angel Sánchez, Carlos Germán Muñoz and James S. Beaver

The inheritance of resistance to bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) was studied in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The original cross was made between breeding line PR9556-158, which produces deformed pods when infected with BGYMV, and PR9556-171, which has normal pod development when inoculated with the virus. Pod type was evaluated on plants from six generations (parental lines, F1, F2, F2:3, F3:4, and backcrosses of the F1 to both parents) at mid-pod fill (R8), ≈65 days after planting. The segregation patterns from the F2, F2:3, F3:4, and backcross populations were consistent with the hypothesis that a single dominant gene confers normal pod development in PR9556-171. When inoculated with BGYMV, the deformed pods of PR9556-158 produced fewer seeds per pod than PR9556-171, resulting in lower seed yield. The gene symbol Bgp-1 has been assigned for this dominant resistance gene that controls the normal pod reaction to BGYMV in common bean.

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Phillip N. Miklas, Valerie Stone, Carlos A. Urrea and James S. Beaver

A genetic linkage map of 170 RAPD markers mapped across 79 recombinant inbred lines (Dorado and XAN-176) reveal genomic regions that condition multiple disease resistance to fungal (Ashy Stem Blight—Macrophomina phaseolina), viral (bean golden mosaic virus—BGMV), and bacterial (common bacterial blight—Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli) pathogens of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). A genomic site on linkage group US-1 had a major effect, explaining 18%, 34%, and 40% of the variation in phenotypic reaction to ashy stem blight, BGMV, and common bacterial blight disease, respectively. Adjacent to this region was a QTL conditioning 23% of the variation in reaction to another fungal pathogen, web blight (Thanatephorus cucumeris). A second genomic site on linkage group US-1 had minor affect on multiple resistance expression to the same fungal (15%), viral (15%), and bacterial (10%) pathogens. It is unknown whether these specific genomic regions represent a series of linked QTL affecting resistance to each disease separately or an individual locus with pleiotropic effect against all three pathogens.

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Jose J. Velez, Mark J. Bassett, James S. Beaver and Albeiro Molina

The inheritance of resistance to bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was studied in crosses between susceptible bean variety XAN176 and resistant breeding lines 9236-6 (T446/A429) and 9245-94 (DOR303/T968). Disease response data were taken on plants from four generations derived from each cross (parents, F1, F2, and backcrosses (BCs) of F1 to both parents) at 25 days after plants were inoculated with BGMV, using whiteflies (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) as vectors. The segregation ratios obtained from F2 and BC generations were consistent with the hypothesis that resistance in 9236-6, which prevents a chlorotic response, is conferred by a single recessive gene. The disease response in 9245-94 was controlled by two genes—a dominant gene controlling a dwarfing reaction and a recessive resistance gene preventing a chlorotic response to BGMV infection. An allelism test demonstrated that the gene controlling resistance in 9236-6 is nonallelic with the recessive gene controlling resistance in 9245-94. The gene symbol bgm is proposed for the recessive resistance gene (originally from A429) in 9236-6. The gene symbol bgm-2 is proposed for the recessive resistance gene (originally from DOR303) in 9245-94.