Export celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) from Australia has been affected by a natural infestation of purple scum springtails (Hypogastrura vernalis). These insects live inside the celery head, contaminating fresh celery, but do not cause any visible damage. As a result, purple scum springtail-infested celery has led to rejection for export with an impact on market value for fresh produce. In this study, fumigation with ethyl formate (EF), phosphine (PH3), and their combination on mortality of purple scum springtails in naturally infested celery was evaluated. Laboratory experiments were conducted using concentrations of 50, 60, and 90 mg·L−1 of EF for 1, 2, and 4 hours; 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 mg·L−1 of PH3 for 2, 4, and 6 hours; and 20, 30, and 40 mg·L−1 of EF combined with 1 mg·L−1 of PH3, for 2 and 4 hours at the laboratory temperature 25 °C. Complete control was achieved at 90 mg·L−1 of EF for 2 hours; however, phytotoxicity was observed in celery treated by EF at all concentrations. PH3 at 2.5 mg·L−1 achieved 100% mortality within 6 hours, and no phytotoxicity was evident. Mortality of 100% was achieved also at 30 and 40 mg·L−1 EF combined with 1 mg·L−1 of PH3 for 2 and 4 hours exposure time; however, phytotoxicity occurred with EF alone treatments and with the combination. From these data, we conclude that PH3 alone has potential as a fumigant for the preshipment treatment of celery infested with purple scum springtails.
Qasim Ahmed, Yonglin Ren, Robert Emery, James Newman, and Manjree Agarwal
Bert T. Swanson, James B. Calkins, and Debra L. Newman
A manual for certified nursery and landscape professionals has been developed by the University of Minnesota Extension Service in conjunction with the Minnesota Nursery and Landscape Association (MNLA). The purpose of the certification manual is to facilitate the improvement of basic skills and knowledge of nursery and landscape professionals, to further the education and training of competent nursery and landscape professionals, and to serve as a training and reference manual for most levels of nursery and landscape culture and management. The manual consists of thirty-four chapters covering all aspects of woody plant biology and culture: abiotic and biotic plant stress; landscape design; installation and maintenance; plant marketing, merchandising and sales; and laws, regulations and safety concerns for nursery, landscape and garden center personnel. A concise glossary, the American Standard For Nursery Stock, and an illustrated nursery catalog are also included in the manual. The manual is an important part of the MNLA Certification Program whose purpose is to improve the skills, knowledge and, expertise of nursery and landscape professionals. The Certification Program also strives for faster recognition and promotion of professionalism within the industry and to the general public.
Harrison Hughes, Elizabeth Mogen, Steven Newman, James Klett, and Anthony Koski
An assessment plan for the Horticulture and Landscape Horticulture majors has been developed as part of a university-wide effort to assess resident instruction. The program mission has been described as the preparation of graduates with a passion for Horticulture/Landscape Horticulture who can contribute to Colorado's agricultural and green industry economy through high levels of: 1) technical competency and skills, including disciplinary competence, and a working knowledge in the appropriate field; 2) management and leadership skills; and 3) problem-solving skills. Assessment methods involved the development of evaluation forms for internships, practicum, independent study, group study, and the capstone courses. Student, faculty, clients, and industry personnel used standardized forms, which varied somewhat for the two majors and seven concentrations, to critically assess and score student and faculty efforts. Internships, practicum, and capstone courses were evaluated for program purpose. The management and leadership skills of the students were evaluated based on their performance during internships by cooperators and also by their activities, as demonstrated through their involvement in university, college, departmental, and community activities. Problem-solving skills were evaluated primarily through student performance in capstone courses, with specific criteria in the internship and in leadership activities of clubs. The expectation is that 70% to 75% of the students will score 3 or 3+ on all criteria established for a rating system of 1–5. Students have generally met this standard and plans are under way to continually upgrade courses and related activities to improve the teaching program