A flat bed scanner can be used as a high-resolution digital camera with close-up capabitlities for photographing plant material such as leaves, flowers, and plant pests. The scanner is very useful as a diagnostic and instructional tool that is more portable and less expensive than a camera and dissecting microscope. The quality of the images can be very good and can be enhanced in post-production using image editing software. The main disadvantage is the shallow depth of field, which requires the object be on a single plane.
Options for acquiring digital images are explored. Photo CDs, scanned images, and video capture are the most common sources of images. Photo CDs produce the highest-quality images, but require more time to get the digitized images due to commercial processing. For Photo CDs, the images are photographed with a 35-mm camera and sent for processing and digitizing. Slide and flat bed scanning is time consuming when working with bulk quantities of images. With live video capture, a video camera is directly connected to a computer and images are digitized in real time. Tape-recorded images can be also be used, but the image quality is less than live video. VWeb server allows rapid dissemination of the materials. This procedure greatly reduces the production time to a finished product, gives flexibility in revising publications and allows a greater variety of materials to be produced.
Numerous shooting and post-production techniques can be used to improve the quality of images used in horticultural publications. Certain lenses, lens attachments, and camera accessories are useful for enabling greater success in photographing plants. Small diffusers and reflectors allow the shooting of close-ups in the field, even when the sun is directly overhead. Shift lenses can be used to photograph trees at a closer distance without the extreme distortion of wide focal length lenses. Stitching of multiple images to produce panoramic shots can produce images with increased resolution, less distortion, and without the need for a wide-angle lens. Experiences with digital asset management management and post-production workflows are also presented.
An electronic document does not have to be limited to text and static images. Electronic publications greatly expand the potential of types of images that can be included compared to print media. With increased ease of accessing the internet and increased bandwidth availability, individuals have less limitations for downloading the enhanced documents. These documents include much more than color images. Options such as hypertext links, interactive graphics, movies, presentations, and audio are discussed.
Scaevola sericea is a plant native to Guam. The normal flower has petals that are usually white with slight, thin, magenta bands. The seeds for these plants were collected from a parent plant with dark magenta flowers growing in the wild. Plans are to self the parent plant to observe the variation in the seedling population. Four selections of S. serica were made and are being propagated for public release. Three of these selections have white petals with broad magenta bands or spots on the flower petals, in contrast to the usual white flower. One selection has a floral fragrance.
Plants native to Guam are being evaluated for use in the Guam landscape. The selected plants are being propagated by seed and/or cutting. The genera currently being evaluated and propagated include Scaevola, Eleaocarpus, Ochrosia, Guamia, Pemphis, and Bikkia. Variation in flower color and floral fragrance were observed in Scaevola and selections have been made. There has been some difficulty establishing some of the plants in the landscape environment. There have been some significant insect problems occurring on established plants.
Cultivars of heliconias were evaluated for use in Guam as a cut flower and in the landscape. Forty-five cultivars were planted at three locations in Guam. Due to insufficient plant material, the evaluation was preliminary. Noteworthy differences were observed among the cultivars. Differences were noted in time to establish, frequency of flowering, and resistance to wind damage. Establishment required large quantities of water. Once established, some cultivars appeared to be drought-tolerant; however, feral pigs and carabao became a problem due to massive mechanical damage. Typhoons also caused severe damage to the foliage. Rhizomes did not suffer obvious damage, resulting in recovery within 1 year. Heliconias as a cut flower does not appear feasible. As a landscape plant, heliconias should be given further consideration.
A Print-On-Demand (POD) System was developed for the rapid production of educational and extension materials such as fact-sheets. Information is stored in a final format on the computer and the number of copies of a specific publication can be printed as needed. The system greatly reduces the time to having the finished product and allows any number of publications to be printed. The printing cost ranges from $.43 to $.80 per page with a 300dpi color thermal wax printer.
Photo CDs and video capture images are the most common sources of color images used in the POD system. Photo CDs produce higher quality images but require time to process a film before images are used in the system. In live video capture, an image can be captured by a video camera, and sent to a computer for immediate production of a fact-sheet. Tape playback reduces the image quality compared to live video. Live video also gives the best feedback in determining whether the image shows the desired information. In general, the image is video captured at twice the needed size and reduced while increasing the resolution from 72 dpi to 130 dpi. This produces a better quality image. Other sources of pictures are flatbed scanners and slide scanners.
Floral characteristics, meiotic behavior, and sporad formation were compared in three Dendrobium tetraploids (amphidiploids) and their diploid counterparts. Amphidiploid flowers were larger than those of diploids. Diploid meiotic behavior varied; mean configurations at Metaphase I ranged from 14.3 bivalents and 9.4 univalents to 18.9 bivalents and 0.2 univalents. In amphidiploids, nearly all cells had 38 bivalents. Sporad formation also varied; diploids had 36% to 70% tetrads and amphidiploids had 97% to 100% tetrads. Preferential pairing and small chromosome size may promote bivalent formation in amphidiploids.
A Print-on-Demand (POD) System was developed to expand the availability of printed extension and educational materials. The layouts are developed on a computer using text files and digital images. Images can be edited with graphics programs before insertion into the layouts. The completed materials are stored, in final format, on disk and are printed on an as-needed basis or distributed over computer networks. The system greatly reduces the production time to a finished product and gives great flexibility in revising publications. The basic POD system consists of a computer, a mass storage device, and a printer. Photo CDs and video capture are the most common sources of digital images. Photo CDs produce higher-quality images but require more time to get the digitized images due to commercial processing. For Photo CDs, the images are photographed with a 35-mm camera and sent for processing and digitizing. With live video capture, a video camera is connected directly to a computer and images are digitized in real time. Tape recorded images also can be used, but the image quality is less than live video. Video images are digitized at 72 pixels per inch (ppi), and Photo CD images are available at >3000 ppi. Video images are best digitized at twice their desired size and reduced to final size when increasing the resolution.