Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for

  • Author or Editor: James Lee x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Jiwon Jeong, James Lee and Donald J. Huber

This study was performed to characterize the physiological responses of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit harvested at either 10% to 30% or 30% to 60% color change and treated with two forms of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Tomato fruit were treated either by submersion for 1 min in 1-MCP aqueous solution at the ambient temperature or by exposure for 12 h at 20 °C in air with 1-MCP gas, then stored at 20 °C. The concentrations (1.0, 5.0, or 10.0 μL·L-1) in 1-MCP aqueous solution were achieved through addition of 0.5, 2.5, or 5.0 g of AFxRD-300 powder (2.0% formulation, Agro-Fresh, Inc.) to 10 L of the de-ionized water, following manufacturer's instructions. 1-MCP (0.5 μL·L-1) gas in a 174-L container was achieved through addition of 0.22 g of SmartFresh® powder (0.14% formulation, Agro-Fresh, Inc.) to 100 mL of tap water. Both forms of 1-MCP significantly delayed ripening of fruit at the two initial ripeness stages, as noted by a significant delay in fruit softening and peel color change. The firmness of 30% to 60% color change tomatoes was significantly retained in response to gaseous or aqueous 1-MCP. Control fruit softened rapidly and reached the minimum marketable firmness value (about 5 N) within 8 days of storage at 20 °C, whereas fruit treated with gaseous 1-MCP (0.5 μL·L-1) or aqueous 1-MCP (1.0 or 5.0 μL·L-1) reached the same stage after 16, 20, or 24 days, respectively. Firmness retention was also highly significant for 10% to 30% color change tomatoes treated with both forms of 1-MCP. The highest concentration of aqueous 1-MCP (10.0 μL·L-1) did not result in a further delay in ripening compared with treatment at 5.0 or 1.0 μL·L-1 1-MCP.

Free access

Jiwon Jeong, James Lee and Donald J. Huber

Three experiments were performed to characterize the physiological responses of an Eastern United States shipper muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus ‘Athena’) harvested preripe (¼ slip) and during ripening (half-slip, full-slip) to 1 μL·L−1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a potent ethylene antagonist effective at significantly extending the time required for climacteric fruit to complete ripening. In the first experiment, preripe fruit were treated with 1-MCP (18 hour, 20 °C) before storage at 15 °C. Softening of preripe ‘Athena’ was significantly suppressed in response to 1-MCP, with firmness of control and 1-MCP–treated fruit declining ≈50% and ≈36% through 12 and 18 days of storage at 15 °C, respectively. By 21 days of storage, firmness of 1-MCP–treated remained near 70 N, minimally within the upper range of whole-fruit firmness values considered acceptable for consumption (50–75 N). Fruit treated with 1-MCP exhibited significantly lower ethylene production, respiratory rates, and electrolyte leakage throughout storage. In a second experiment, muskmelon were treated with 1-MCP (18 hours, 20 °C) at progressively advanced stages of ripening (half- and full-slip stages). Softening was significantly suppressed in half-slip fruit, declining ≈64% and ≈23% in control and 1-MCP–treated fruit, respectively, during 16 days of storage at 15 °C. Advanced-ripening, full-slip fruit were similarly affected, softening ≈60% and ≈25% in control and 1-MCP–treated fruit, respectively, during 10 days at 15 °C. In a third experiment designed to simulate possible commercial handling protocols, full-slip muskmelon were treated with 1-MCP (24 hours, 10 °C) and held at 10 °C for 5 days before transfer to 20 °C. Mesocarp firmness of 1-MCP and control fruit within 2 days of transfer to 20 °C had decreased ≈40% and ≈54%, respectively, compared with values at the start of the experiment. After an additional 2 days at 20 °C, the mesocarp tissue of the respective treatments had softened 42% and 70%. Fruit treated with the ethylene antagonist showed significantly delayed incidence of surface decay and sunken regions compared with control fruit.

Free access

Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis and David R. Rudell

‘Royal Gala’ apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit can be susceptible to the development of postharvest disorders such as flesh breakdown and cracking (splitting) during and after cold storage. The objective of this research was to investigate fruit size and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment effects on fruit physiological attributes and incidence and severity of storage disorders in ‘Royal Gala’ apples held in cold storage. In 2011, fruit segregated at harvest into two groups based on size (120 to 175, 250 to 350 g/fruit) were stored in air at 0.5 °C for 6 months and then at 20 °C for 7 days. In 2012, fruit were sorted into four groups (less than 200, 200 to 240, 241 to 280, and greater than 280 g/fruit), treated with 0 or 1 μL·L−1 1-MCP for 12 hours, and then stored in air at 0.5 °C for 3 or 6 months. Storage disorders were only detected at 6 months, regardless of 1-MCP treatment. In both control and 1-MCP-treated fruit, flesh breakdown incidence increased with fruit size, whereas severity was less associated with size. The progression of flesh breakdown developed in overall cortex tissue of control fruit but only detected in the stem-end tissue of 1-MCP-treated fruit. Internal ethylene concentration (IEC) decreased and CO2 production increased with increased fruit weight; however, 1-MCP-treated fruit had low IEC regardless of weight. Cortex tissue lightness (L*) increased with fruit size irrespective of tissue localization (stem end, equatorial, calyx end) at harvest. During 6 months’ storage, L* decreased with increased fruit size in controls but not 1-MCP-treated fruit. Fruit fresh weight loss increased with fruit size and storage duration, more so in controls when compared with 1-MCP-treated fruit. Furthermore, fruit circumference increased during storage with fruit size only for control fruit. These physical changes are associated with susceptibility of large fruit to flesh breakdown more so than small fruit. Reduced flesh breakdown incidence, progression of symptoms from the stem end into the cortex, and symptom severity in 1-MCP-treated fruit may indicate flesh breakdown is related to fruit ripening and senescence.

Full access

Brandon M. Hurr, Donald J. Huber and James H. Lee

In this study, ripening characteristics, including color change and softening, were determined for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum `Florida 47') fruit at immature-green through light red stages of development and subsequently treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Special attention was directed at comparing the responses of immature and mature-green fruit. Surface color and whole fruit firmness were measured every other day. 1-MCP delayed or slowed color changes and softening in fruit of every maturity class, with differences between control and treated fruit evident immediately following 1-MCP application for 24 h at 20 °C. Fruit treated with 1-MCP at early maturity stages (immature-green, mature-green, and breaker) exhibited an extended delay in external red pigment accumulation compared with control fruit. Fruit of all maturity classes developed acceptable final hue values (hue angle ≤55°), and the time required to reach these values declined with advancing fruit maturity. Immature-green fruit treated with 1-MCP did not attain an acceptable degree of softening during the specified storage periods examined before deteriorating due to shriveling and pathogen proliferation. 1-MCP-treated mature-green and breaker stage fruit did recover to acceptable firmness (5–10 N) and hue values but exhibited a severely reduced storage life thereafter compared with untreated fruit of equal maturity. Fruit at turning and more advanced stages exhibited reduced rates of softening and color development when treated with 1-MCP, yet they attained firmness and color values within the range of acceptability for commercial use. Fruit treated with 1-MCP at pink and light-red stages of ripening developed normal external color and exhibited significantly extended postharvest life due largely to a significant retention in firmness when compared to control fruit. Based on the studies described for `Florida 47' tomato fruit, 1-MCP would appear to be of little benefit and possibly detrimental if applied to early maturity fruit, most notably greens and breakers, due to irreversible limitations in the capacity of these fruit to soften to acceptable values. In sharp contrast, more advanced stage fruit, particularly pink and light red, responded to 1-MCP with significantly extended shelf-life due to retention of firmness.

Free access

Chiwon W. Lee, Edward P. Glenn and James W. O'Leary

Restricted access

Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis and David R. Rudell

‘Royal Gala’ apples can be susceptible to the incidence of fruit cracking and senescent flesh breakdown during cold storage. Because the development of these physiological disorders in other cultivars can be influenced by humidity during storage, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high storage humidity on fruit quality attributes and incidence of physiological disorders in cold-stored ‘Royal Gala’ apples. Fruit obtained from a commercial orchard were kept in cardboard boxes with or without a perforated polyethylene liner during and after cold storage. High storage humidity induced by the perforated polyethylene liner reduced fresh weight loss but enhanced the change of fruit circumference after cold storage. High storage humidity contributed the most reduction of cortex lightness (L*) and hue angle (h o) in stem-end cortex tissues during shelf life. Fruit stored with liners had reduced internal ethylene concentration (IEC) and outer cortex firmness after removal from storage compared with control fruit. Furthermore, high storage humidity prevented shriveling but provoked fruit cracking. The incidence and severity of flesh breakdown were further aggravated during shelf life, compared with cold storage, regardless of a liner application. Overall, maintaining high storage humidity by applying a perforated polyethylene liner can contribute to delaying fresh weight loss, reducing IEC, and preventing fruit shriveling but can enhance cortex tissue browning, loss of flesh firmness, and incidence of fruit cracking during cold storage and shelf life.

Free access

Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis and David R. Rudell

‘Royal Gala’ apples [Malus domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]can develop postharvest disorders such as flesh browning, senescent breakdown, peeling, cracking, or shriveling during and after cold storage. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of storage temperature and a range (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 µL·L−1) of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) concentrations on fruit quality attributes and incidence and severity of physiological disorders during and after cold storage. Storage temperature differentially affected internal ethylene concentration (IEC), fruit circumference, and cortex color. 1-MCP treatment resulted in significant effects on fruit quality attributes and severity of physiological disorders, regardless of storage temperature. Incidence and severity of diffuse flesh breakdown (DFB), shriveling, cracking, and peeling were highest in control fruit stored but radial stem-end flesh breakdown (RSFB) only primarily in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Incidence of RSFB was highest following storage at 0.5 °C compared with 3 °C. 1-MCP treatment had the most influence on disorder incidence/severity or quality attributes, while treatment concentration of 1-MCP was not significant. Overall, the results indicate that 1-MCP treatment can reduce the incidence of ‘Royal Gala’ DFB but may enhance sensitivity to RSFB, when fruit are stored at 0.5 or 3 °C. Incidence of DFB and RSFB are influenced differentially by storage temperature or by 1-MCP treatment, respectively, indicating they may be different disorders.

Free access

Choong-Ki Lee, Sin-Ae Park, James W. Mjelde, Tae-Kyun Kim and Jae-Hwan Cho

Previous research has shown horticultural therapy (HT) provides both physical and mental benefits to those engaged in the gardening activities. Individuals' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for these benefits, however, is unknown because of the lack of well-defined markets for HT. As such, this study estimates individuals' mean WTP for a HT site in Busan, South Korea. Mean WTP is ≈$170/month U.S. per individual. WTP, however, shows a wide dispersion; the standard deviation of the estimated WTP is ≈$60 U.S. This study provides additional information to the policymakers of Busan concerning the issue of developing a horticultural site for its citizens. This information must be weighed against the costs of developing the site.

Free access

Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian M. Yorgey, Theodore A. Mackey, James F. Hancock, Jungmin Lee and Robert R. Martin

Free access

Neil Anderson, Peter Ascher, Esther Gesick, Lee Klossner, Neal Eash, Vincent Fritz, James Hebel, Stephen Poppe, Judith Reith-Rozelle, Roger Wagner, Susan Jacobson, David Wildung and Patricia Johnson

Three new Chrysanthemum ×hybrida, garden chrysanthemum cultivars: Red Daisy, White Daisy, and Coral Daisy, are the first in the Mammoth™ series that are advanced interspecific hybrids derived from an open-pollinated cross between hexaploid C. weyrichii (Maxim.) Tzvelv. × C. ×grandiflora Tzvelv. These cultivars are backcross or inbred derivatives of the original interspecific F1 hybrids. All three cultivars are U.S. Department of Agriculture Z3b (−34.4 °C to −37.2 °C) winter-hardy herbaceous perennials exhibiting a shrub habit with the cushion phenotype. Additional traits exhibited by these three cultivars are butterfly attractants, frost tolerance of the flowers, and genetic ‘self-pinching.’ These Mammoth™ cultivars are clonally propagated, virus indexed, protected by U.S. Plant Patents and Canadian Plant Breeder's Rights, and are available from the North American exclusive licensee Ball Seed Company.