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James L. Brewbaker

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James L. Brewbaker

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James L. Brewbaker and Chifume Nagai

“Waimanalo Supersweet” will be released at the time of the 1992 ASHS meeting in Hawaii. A singlecross supersweet corn based on the brittle gene, “Waimanalo Supersweet” represents over 50 generations of inbreeding and backcrossing in Hawaii. Successive projects involved the development of sugary inbreds and their conversion to Mv. Ht. Rp-d and brittle genes. The inbred parents have very limited temperate germplasm and are relatively daylength sensitive. This single cross hybrid and its related 3X (“Hawaiian Supesweet #10”) and OP variety (“Hawaiian Supersweet #9”) show tolerance to Puccinia sorghi rust and Fusarium Moniliforme kernel rot greatly in excess of commercial sweet corns to which they have been compared, and they have performed capably throughout the tropics. Available data on pest tolerance, growth and quality will be summarized.

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Glenn M. Ito and James L. Brewbaker

Pericarp thickness in maize (Zea mays L.) was analyzed by generation mean analysis for backcross and F2 populations from eight hybrids, derived from two thin-pericarped sweet corn inbreds—AA8 and 677a (55 and 51 μm)—crossed with four field corn inbreds—B37, B68, H55, and Hi26 (range 82-132 μm). Average heterosis was −12.5% and segregating progeny distributions were skewed toward those of thin-pericarped parents. Narrow-sense heritability was high, averaging 55.2%, and the number of effective factors was low, ranging from 1.4 to 5.9 and averaging 3.3. Epistatic effects were as large as additive or dominance effects in many crosses, urging caution in applying models that exclude gene interactions to determine variance components and heritabilities. The mode of action in reducing pericarp thickness appeared to differ among the two thin parents, with AA8 affecting the differential thickening of germinal vs. abgerminal walls, and 677a reducing the number of pericarp cell layers. All genetic parameters suggested that genetic progress in backcross conversions to thin pericarp in sweet corn breeding would be rapid irrespective of the pericarp thickness of exotic parents.

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Jerald K. Pataky, Mirian Gonzalez, James L. Brewbaker and Frederik J. Kloppers

Resistance to Puccinia sorghi Schwein. based on the Rp1-D gene has been used successfully in North America for the past 15 years to control common rust on sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The objective of this preliminary research was to examine rust reactions of Rp-hybrids grown for processing in the midwestern United States against biotypes of P. sorghi virulent against Rp1-D. In Sept. 1999, isolates of P. sorghi virulent on corn with the Rp1-D gene were collected throughout the midwestern United States. Rust reactions of 41 Rp-resistant, processing sweet corn hybrids and nine non-Rp hybrids were evaluated during the 1999-2000 season in Argentina, Hawaii, Mexico, and South Africa, where populations of P. sorghi are virulent against Rp1-D. Sporulating uredinia were observed on all hybrids in all locations. Although rust reactions varied among locations, mean standardized scores of nine non-Rp hybrids that were included in the trial as controls ranked nearly the same as in previous trials. Thirteen hybrids with standardized scores above 0.25 were more susceptible than the hybrid with the lowest mean rust rating, `Green Giant Code 27'. Thirty-two hybrids were intermediate in reaction to P. sorghi virulent against Rp1-D. Reactions were moderately resistant for nine hybrids with mean standardized scores below -0.50, including two moderately resistant, non-Rp hybrids (`GG Code 27' and `GG Code 6') that were included as controls. Additional trials are necessary to confirm reactions of these hybrids. If the Rp-hybrids that were moderately susceptible or susceptible in this trial are infected by P. sorghi virulent against Rp1-D, secondary inoculum will be abundant and infection will be severe if the weather is wet.