Germination and stand establishment of shrunken-2 sweet corn is a major production-related problem, particularly during early spring in the upper Midwest U.S. Several potential physical and physiological factors have been identified as contributors to poor stand establishment. Poor pericarp integrity and high sucrose levels may lead to non-uniform moisturization and imbibitional injury. Studies were conducted to determine if the use of “controlled moisturization” preplant treatments reduced imbibitional injury and improved germination and seedling vigor. Both laboratory and field results will be discussed.
Ethephon and 2,4-D were foliarly applied to red-skinned `Norland' potatoes (Solarium tuberosum L.) to determine if periderm color could be enhanced at harvest and throughout storage. Base rates of 250 and 185 ml·liter–1 for ethephon and 2,4-D, respectively, were applied at the onset of tuberization (tubers ≥ 2.5 cm in diameter). Base or double-rate foliar applications of either ethephon or 2,4-D resulted in significant U.S. No. 1 yield reductions and did not affect periderm color intensity at harvest or throughout storage sufficiently to warrant their use. Chemical names used: (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon), (2,4 -dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D).
Three new Chrysanthemum ×hybrida, garden chrysanthemum cultivars: Red Daisy, White Daisy, and Coral Daisy, are the first in the Mammoth™ series that are advanced interspecific hybrids derived from an open-pollinated cross between hexaploid C. weyrichii (Maxim.) Tzvelv. × C. ×grandiflora Tzvelv. These cultivars are backcross or inbred derivatives of the original interspecific F1 hybrids. All three cultivars are U.S. Department of Agriculture Z3b (−34.4 °C to −37.2 °C) winter-hardy herbaceous perennials exhibiting a shrub habit with the cushion phenotype. Additional traits exhibited by these three cultivars are butterfly attractants, frost tolerance of the flowers, and genetic ‘self-pinching.’ These Mammoth™ cultivars are clonally propagated, virus indexed, protected by U.S. Plant Patents and Canadian Plant Breeder's Rights, and are available from the North American exclusive licensee Ball Seed Company.