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James F. Hancock

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James F. Hancock

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James F. Hancock

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James F. Hancock and Barbara Goulart

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James F. Hancock and Charles Stuber

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Sedat Serçe and James F. Hancock

The inheritance of day-neutrality in octoploid Fragaria L. was investigated in crosses between day-neutral (DN) × short day (SD) and DN × DN types using F. ×ananassa Duchesne in Lamarck cultivars and elite selections of F. virginiana Miller and F. chiloensis (L.) Miller. Genotypes were considered as DN if they flowered under both the SDs of spring before 30 May (<14 hours) and the long days of summer after 24 July (>15 hours). Wide ranges in the percentage of DN progeny were found among the families regardless of species background (30% to 87% in DN × SD and 22% to 93% in DN × DN crosses). None of the families fit the segregation ratios expected if DN was regulated by recessive alleles at one locus, and only about half of the families fit the segregation ratios expected if a single dominant allele regulated DN. Several two-gene models fit the segregation data better than the single locus ones, but none of the genetic models tested fit the DN segregation ratios at the ends of the distribution range. The wide range observed in the percentage of DN progeny across all the families is most consistent with a polygenic model. Several other kinds of observations supported the multigenic regulation of DN: 1) Different DN parents crossed to the same SD genotype often produced different percentages of DN progeny, 2) Some of the day-neutrality sources were more powerful than others in producing of DNs, and 3) None of the DN parents produced 100% DN progeny, which would be expected if there were homozygous dominant DN individuals. Specific combining abilities for DN and flowering strength were significant, while general combining abilities for these traits were not. Our results suggest that parental combinations can be selected that will generate very high proportions of DN progeny that bloom for long periods of time.

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Luping Qu and James F. Hancock

A tetraploid blueberry population resulting from a cross of US 75 {a tetraploid hybrid of Fla 4B [a selection of Vaccinium darrowi Camp (2n = 2x = 24) × `Bluecrop' [(V. corymbosum L. (2n = 4x = 48)]} × `Bluetta' (4x) was used to generate a genetic linkage map of US 75 by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. One hundred and forty markers unique for Fla 4B that segregated 1:1 in the population were mapped into 29 linkage groups that cover a total genetic distance of 1288.2 cM, with a range of 1.6 to 33.9 cM between adjacent markers. The map is essentially of V. darrowi because US 75 was produced via a 2n gamete from Fla 4B and only unique markers for Fla 4B were used. Therefore, all the chromosomes of V. darrowi could be represented in the map.

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Cholani K. Weebadde* and James F. Hancock

While it is important for strawberry breeders to know the genetics of day-neutrality, evidence for inheritance of the trait is still contradictory. It is not known how many genes govern the trait, to what extent each gene affects phenotype and how the environment influences gene expression. Several recent studies point toward a polygenic threshold model and a rejection of the single gene model. A linkage mapping approach is being used to determine if day neutrality can be mapped to several different quantitative trait loci (QTL) that may represent different genes. To confirm that a linkage mapping approach is the method of choice for QTL detection, a small population of the cross `Honeoye' x `Tribute' consisting of 57 progeny segregating for the trait was genotyped with single dose restriction fragment (SDRF) markers and a preliminary genetic map was created using Join Map 3.0. Results separated the molecular markers into at least 24 linkage groups and several putative QTL for day neutrality were identified indicating that the technique will be successful. However, due to the complexity of the octoploid genome of strawberry, over 200 progeny need to be genotyped to build a complete map that includes the 56 linkage groups of the genome. Furthermore, for determining QTL, an accurate phenotypic evaluation is critical. Individuals of the population above were phenotyped under field conditions (East Lansing, Mich.) in 2002 and 2003, and are now being analyzed under controlled temperature and photoperiod conditions for confirmation of the QTL detected for the trait. A larger population of the same cross with over 200 progeny has also been generated and will be mapped using molecular markers after determining their phenotype under the same environmental conditions.

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James F. Hancock and Barbara L. Goulart