The spatial distribution patterns of five melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) were evaluated by measuring XY coordinates of ripe fruit locations in the field. Fruit ripeness distribution over time was also evaluated for three cultivars by measuring the number of ripe fruit, fruit mass, and location over time. Spatial distribution curves for distances between fruit clusters and individual fruit from cluster centroids varied between clusters and were derived for each cultivar from the best fit curves based on chi-square analysis from the two-dimensional spatial fruit distribution. These equations can be used for predicting actual fruit locations in the field. Ripeness distribution patterns indicated that, while the exact duration of the effective harvesting period is cultivar-dependent, the ripeness trend for each of the cultivars was similar. Spatial distribution patterns vary among melon cultivars and must be recognized in the design of automated harvesting systems.
Yael Edan and James E. Simon
James Quinn, James E. Simon, and Jules Janick
Somatic embryos of borage (Borago officinalis L., Boraginaceae) were induced directly from immature zygotic embryos and indirectly from callus. Embryogenic callus maintained on liquid basal medium supplemented with 4.5 μm 2,4-D and 10% (v/v) coconut water (CW) produced globular structures that became rhizogenic upon transfer to 2,4-D-free basal medium. Embryogenic callus maintained on semisolid basal medium supplemented with 4.5 μm 2,4-D and 10% CW continued to produce somatic embryos, but development was abnormal. Globular structures often failed to develop cotyledons, and those that developed were small and fused; hypocotyls tended to be large and elongated. Root meristems appeared normal, but shoot meristems were not formed. Carbon source (sucrose, glucose, or maltose) and ABA did not normalize somatic embryogenesis. A highly embryogenic, non-browning clone produced various tissue types when 2,4-D was withdrawn that varied in total fatty acids: white nodular structures (12.6%), cotyledonary structures (22.5%), white callus (5.0%), green leafy growth (3.1%), and translucent globular growth (5.1%). γ-Linolenic acid, as a percentage of total fatty acids, was highest in cotyledonary structures (19.9%) and lowest in white callus (10.2%). Chemical names used: abscisic acid (ABA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); coconut water (CW).
James Quinn, James E. Simon, and Jules Janick
Embryo sac formation in borage (Borago officinalis L.) was of monosporic, Polygonum type. Zygotic embryogenesis resembled the Piperad type (Myosotis Variation) without a suspensor after the four-cell stage with free nuclear endosperm. Cotyledons were initiated 4 days after pollination (DAP) and grew rapidly until 12 to 14 DAP, with seed maturity at 18 DAP. There were two patterns of in vitro somatic embryo development from embryogenic callus: 1) from single cells, which proceeded through typical zygotic embryo stages; or 2) from groups of cells that developed as a meristem. The advanced stages of somatic embryogenesis were characterized by abnormal cotyledon and hypocotyl morphology and incomplete apical development.
Anna Whipkey, James E. Simon, and Jules Janick
NewCROP (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop) is a crop resource online program that serves Indiana, the United States, and the world. This crop information system provides useful resources to encourage and assist new rural-based industries and to enhance agricultural sustainability and competitiveness. The NewCROP site currently averages 150,000 hits per month. Indiana CropMAP is the first module in a proposed nationwide, site-specific, retrievable system that will serve the crop information needs of individual growers, marketers, processors, government agencies, cooperative extension personnel, and industry. For each county in Indiana, users can access the most recent US agriculture statistics, county extension offices, lists of crops that are currently grown, recommended alternate crops, and experimental crops. Detailed crop information, much of it specific to Indiana, can be accessed directly or through a crop search. The New Crop Compendium CD-ROM was produced by the Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plant Products in cooperation with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The New Crop Compendium CD-ROM, a searchable resource of new crop information, was edited by Jules Janick and Anna Whipkey and contains the entire text and figures from the proceedings of the three National New Crop Symposia: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). 1990. Advances in New Crops. Timber Press, Portland, Ore.; J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). 1993. New Crops. Wiley, New York; and J. Janick (ed.). 1996. Progress in New Crops. ASHS Press, Alexandria, Va. The New Crop Compendium provides a valuable source of information on new, specialty, neglected, and underutilized crops for scientists, growers, marketers, processors, and extension personnel. It employs an intuitive, easy to use interface. Purchase information can be found at the following url: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/compendium/order.html.
Mario R. Morales and James E. Simon
`African Beauty', a new ornamental camphor basil cultivar, was developed through three cycles of selfing and selection from USDA accession PI 500942, originally collected in Zambia, Africa. `African Beauty' was field-evaluated and compared with PI 500942 (the original population), PI 500954 (another accession from Zambia), a camphor cultivar from Companion Plants, and three other related lines in 1997 and 1998. Most commercial camphor basils are tall (50 to 60 cm), late-flowering, and unattractive. Our goal was to develop a new cultivar that had a short stature (≈40 cm), an early flowering, and an attractive appearance. The outcome was `African Beauty', which has the following characteristics: plant height: 30 to 35 cm, plant spread: 50 to 55 cm, leaf length: 6.3 to 6.7 cm, days to flower: 76 days, inflorescence length: 25 cm, essential oil yield: 3 mL/100 g dw. The essential oil of `African Beauty' is also highly aromatic, with 72% camphor, 12% camphene, and 9% limonene. The plant is a fast-growing, semicompact aromatic plant that produces small leaves and large quantities of long and slender inflorescences that, when fully developed, curve at the tip like the tail of a cat. Blooming usually lasts from 20 to 25 days, when the plant looks most beautiful. `African Beauty' is an attractive ornamental that would be excellent as a garden border plant, or as an indoor potted plant.
Mario R. Morales and James E. Simon
Liangli Yu, Mario Morales, and James E. Simon
Hydro-distilled essential oils from fresh and dry leaves and fresh and dry flowers of `Sweet Dani', a new ornamental lemon basil (Ocimum basilicum) cultivar with potential as a source of natural citral, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil contents were 0.18%, 0.19%, 0.30%, 0.28% w/w on a fresh weight basis of fresh and dry leaves, and fresh and dry flowers, respectively. Oils from leaves and flowers differed significantly in content and composition. The major constituents in dry leaf oil were neral 21.8% and geranial 33.5%. The major constituents in dry flower oil included: nerol 11.5%, neral 12.9%, geraniol 7.6%, and geranial 17.7%. Nerol (1.6%), and geraniol (0.4%) were very low in dry leaf oil. As citral is a combination of neral and geranial, the relative leaf and flower citral content is 55.3% and 30.6% of the total oil, respectively. Linalool and octanol were detected in flower oils only.
Ben H. Alkire and James E. Simon
A 500 liter (130 gallon) stainless steel steam distillation unit has been built to extract volatile essential oils from aromatic plants. A 1.5 m × 0.75 m dia. steam vessel (hydrostatically tested @ 125 psi) serves as the distillation tank. Low pressure or high pressure steam is supplied by a diesel fuel fired boiler of 10 horsepower. The steam vessel can hold peppermint from plots of 25 m2 and extract approximately 100 ml of essential oil per distillation. The size of the tub was designed to provide oil in sufficient quantity for industrial evacuation or for pesticide residue analysis. Following the distillation, the vessel can be disconnected from the cold-water condenser and rotated on swivels to a horizontal position, permitting easy removal and re-filling of plant material. The entire extraction unit (vessel, condenser, boiler and oil collector) is suitable for mounting upon a trader, making it transportable to commercial farms or research stations. The extraction of peppermint and spearmint oils using this new system will be presented.
Winthrop B. Phippen and James E. Simon
The importance of anthocyanins as a food coloring, UV protectant, inhibitor of pathogens, and medicinal compound has been well-documented, with more than 300 anthocyanin compounds being reported in plants. The Lamiaceae family, including sage, thyme, and basil, has long been recognized as a rich source of diverse and unique anthocyanins. Because purple basil varieties have become more popular in the ornamental and herb trade, we conducted a study to identify and characterize the anthocyanins present in eight varieties of purple basils (Ocimum basilicum) utilizing high-pressure liquid chromatography, spectral data and plasma-desorption mass spectronomy. Nine different anthocyanins were identified. Seven of the pigments were cyanidin-based, with cyanidin-3-(6”-p-coumarylglucoside)-5-(6”'-malonylglucoside) as the major pigment. Two minor pigments based on peonidin were also identified. Total anthocyanin content was also determined and comparisons made to other anthocyanin sources.
Renee G. Murray and James E. Simon
Essential oil content of Ocimum basilicum, cv. sweet basil, increases with plant maturity. The increase in essential oil content may correspond to the formation of glandular trichomes during leaf expansion. Greenhouse grown plants were harvested every 2 weeks. Leaves were grouped according to size, examined with a stereo microscope, and trichome densities compared. Results indicate that trichome formation continues throughout leaf expansion. In young basil plants, leaves ranged in size from 2-30cm2 Highest density (416 trichomes/cm2) occurred in leaves 2–6c m2. Prior to open bloom, leaves ranged in size from 2-49cm2. Highest density occurred in leaves 18-24c m2. In flowering plants leaves ranged in size from 2-34cm2, yet there was NSD in trichome density in leaves of different sizes. Analysis of the entire leaf surface of plants at each harvest showed the greatest density of trichomes in plants at full bloom (280 trichomes/c m2). All leaves have visible glandular trichomes. These glandular trichomes are most likely formed both prior to and during leaf expansion.