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James E. Ells

Abstract

Curbiset, a commercial formulation of methyl-2-chloro-hydroxy fluorene-9-carboxylate (chlorflurenol), induced more parthenocarpic fruit on plants of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) from which developing fruits were removed than from plants from which fruit were not removed. Planting at closer spacings yielded more fruit per hectare when chlorflurenol was applied to young plants. However, when sprayed on older plants, spacing did not affect yield. Fruit quality (shape and color) deteriorated when harvesting was delayed beyond 10 days after spraying. Chlorflurenol set a higher percentage of pre-anthesis blossoms early in the season and a greater percentage of post-anthesis blossoms late in the season. Mature blossoms produced larger fruit at harvest than immature blossoms when set with chlorflurenol. Chlorflurenol could be used repetitively to induce a successive fruit set on the same plants for hand-harvest, or sprayed once for a once-over mechanical harvest.

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James E. Ells and Ann E. McSay

Growth chamber tests demonstrated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) residue is toxic to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed germination and seedling growth. Ground alfalfa roots at 0.5% (w/w, dry weight) inhibited germination when added to the growing medium. Alfalfa roots at 0.5% were also toxic to pregerminated cucumber seed. However, cucumber seedlings grew normally if this same medium was watered and incubated for >1 day before planting. Alfalfa particle size in media influenced cucumber performance, with the intermediate size (1 to 2 mm) being lethal to cucumbers.

Open access

James E. Ells and Ann E. McSay

Abstract

Cone, belt, and baffle planters built to fit on standard Planet Jr. planting units, were evaluated for vegetable plot seeding. On the basis of field tests with cabbage, cucumber, and lettuce seed, the belt planter was preferred. The cone planter had difficulty in transferring seed from the cone plate to the delivery tube and the baffle planter did not seed cabbage and lettuce uniformly.

Open access

James E. Ells and Ann E. McSay

Abstract

The 3 common criteria used to express yields of pickling cucumber cultivars are fruit number, dollar value, and kilograms per hectare. In the current study, number offrait was shown to have the least fluctuation over the time when a single destructive harvest would be made and is suggested as the most accurate criterion for comparing yield of pickling cucumber cultivars.

Open access

James E. Ells and Ann E. McSay

Abstract

Substandard color was encountered in experimental frozen samples of pea (Pisum sativum L.) produced in the San Luis Valley, Colorado in 1973 and 1974. Light green and blond peas were mixed with normal dark peas rendering the samples unacceptable. Peas planted in April, 1975 had satisfactory color regardless or irrigation schedule or tenderometer reading at harvest. May-planted peas generally had inferior color and this was aggravated by frequent irrigations and over maturity.

Free access

James E. Ells, E. Gordon Kruse, and Ann E. McSay

Roots of acorn squash were washed from soil cores, dried and weighed. The cores were taken in a pattern about individual plants to reflect the roots present in each selected zone at different periods during the season. A different plant was sampled at each period so that there would be no effect from previous sampling. The root weights were multiplied by factors commensurate with the volume of soil represented by each core sample. Two years data have indicated that irrigation level effects the size of the root system but not its distribution. Density of roots was always greatest in the top 15 cm of soil and this zone of the greatest density progressively moved out from the center of the plant with time. Pattern of root distribution was not effected by plastic mulch, bare ground, trickle or furrow irrigation treatments. Root distribution was the same on all sides of the plant.

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E. Gordon Kruse, James E. Ells, and Ann E. McSay

A 3-year irrigation scheduling study on carrots (Daucus carota L.) was conducted at the Colorado State Univ. Horticulture Research Center near Fort Collins to determine the irrigation schedule that produced the best combination of high water use efficiency and marketable yields with the least amount of water and fewest irrigations. This study used an irrigation scheduling program developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service with crop coefficients calculated for carrots. Maximum carrot production and water use efficiency were obtained when the scheduling program simulated a 30-cm rooting depth at planting, increasing linearly to 60 cm in 75 days. Best yields and water use efficiency were attained by irrigating whenever 40% of the available water in the root zone had been depleted. The computer program for irrigation scheduling is available on diskette from the authors.

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James E. Ells, E. Gordon Kruse, and Ann E. McSay

An irrigation scheduling program has been developed for zucchini squash that produced high yields and high water use efficiency with, a minimum number of irrigations. The irrigation program is based upon a soil water balance model developed by the USDA. This irrigation program is available in diskette form and may be used with any IBM compatible personal computer provided wind run, temperature, solar radiation, humidity and precipitation data are available.

Full access

James E. Ells, Ann E. McSay, and E.G. Kruse

Irrigation scheduling programs were developed for cabbage and zucchini squash that produced high yield and water-use efficiency with a minimum number of irrigations. The irrigation programs are based on a soil water balance model developed by the USDA. The procedure involved selecting irrigation programs developed for similar crops and using them as standards for cabbage and zucchini for three growing seasons. The treatments involved irrigation levels higher and lower than the standard. After the third year, the best treatment for each year was selected. Coefficients for the standard model then were adjusted by trial and error to produce a program that called for the same number of irrigations and the same amount of water as the best-performing treatment when using the same weather data. These revised programs for cabbage and zucchini squash are available on computer disks and may be used on any IBM compatible PC provided wind, temperature, solar radiation, humidity, and precipitation data are available,

Free access

James E. Ells, Ann E. MeSay, and Stephen M. Workman

Chopped alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), alfalfa hay extract, and ammonium hydroxide produced free ammonia in media and inhibited both germination and seedling growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Toxic levels of ammonia were not produced by the quantities of manure added to the media. Alfalfa extract enhanced cucumber seedling growth in sand medium while inhibiting growth in sand-soil media. This difference is attributed to a reduced level of microbial activity in the sand. With higher levels of microbial activity, rapid decomposition of the extract may have resulted in a burst of ammonia evolution that proved damaging to cucumbers. The natural buffering capacity of the soil medium apparently mitigated the effects of the ammonia. Ammonium hydroxide, which did not depend on microbiological activity to release ammonia, proved lethal to cucumbers grown in sand. A diminished effect on growth was observed as the cation exchange capacity of the medium increased. Because high levels of alfalfa hay and ammonium hydroxide were required to produce toxic levels of ammonia in soil, it is unlikely that cucumbers would be harmed under normal field usage of alfalfa hay.