Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is limited by bean rust [Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger var. appendiculatus]. An effective control strategy for this disease is to breed cultivars with durable resistance. Information on the inheritance, genetic relationships, and mapping of genes with molecular markers for specific resistance (SR), adult plant resistance (APR), and abaxial leaf pubescence (ALP) is needed to pyramid the desired genes for durable resistance. ALP was found to be associated previously with APR in Andean germplasm. The objective here was to identify and map RAPD markers for the genes controlling SR, APR, and ALP and to examine their relationships. Five rust pathotypes were inoculated on the unifoliate leaves of 68 recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from `PC-50' (presence of SR, APR, and ALP) × XAN-159 (absence of SR, APR, and ALP). SR was determined by a single major gene (Ur-9) to the five rust pathotypes with no detection of recombinants. The fourth trifoliolate leaves were inoculated with one pathotype (A88T1-4b). A single major gene Ur-12 controlled APR to that pathotype. The Ur-9 gene (SR) was independent of and epistatic to the Ur-12 gene (APR). Because of the low number of APR lines in the RI population resulting from the elimination of RI lines with SR, an F2 population was developed from a cross of two homozygous RI lines selected for unifoliate susceptibility to pathotype A88T1-4b and for resistance and susceptibility of the fourth trifoliolate leaves to tag RAPD markers linked to the Ur-12 gene (APR). The single major gene Pu-a determinated ALP and was not linked to Ur-9 (SR) and Ur-12 (ALP). The gene Ur-9 (SR) was linked to RAPD marker J13-1100 at 5 cM and was not assigned to any linkage group or other markers. The gene Pu-a (ALP) was mapped at 20.2 cM from 116.500 and 3.9 cM from marker G3.1150 in linkage group 3. The Ur-12 gene (APR) was mapped at 34.6 cM from marker O13.1350 in linkage group 4b. This is the first report of mapping a gene for APR in common bean.
Geunhwa Jung, Dermot P. Coyne, James Bokosi, James R. Steadman, and James Nienhuis
Geunhwa Jung, Dermot P. Coyne, E. Arnaud-Santana, James Bokosi, Shawn M. Kaeppler, Paul W. Skroch, and James Nienhuis
Common bacterial blight(CBB) and rust diseases, incited by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp) and Uromyces appendiculatus, respectively, are important diseases of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives were to construct a molecular linkage map, to locate CBB resistances, rust resistances and leaf pubescence using RAPDs. Sixteen linkage groups with 22 unassigned markers were identified. 178 RAPD markers and 8 morphological markers were mapped in a Population of 70 RI lines. Regression analysis and interval mapping using MAPMAKER/QTL were used to identify genomic regions involved in the genetic control of the traits. One, two, and three putative QTLs were identified for seed, pod and leaf reactions. These regions accounted for 18%, 25%, and 35% of the phenotypic variation in CBB resistance. A chromosome region on linkage group 1 carried factors influencing all three traits. Rust resistance genes controlling the reactions on the primary and on the 4th trifoliolate leaves (adult plant resistance) were located in linkage group 16. The genes for abaxial leaf pubescence was located on linkage group 9.
Geunhwa Jung, Dermot P. Coyne, Paul W. Skroch, James Nienhuis, E. Arnaud-Santana, James Bokosi, H.M. Ariyarathne, James Steadman, and James S. Beaver
Common blight, web blight, and rust, incited by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp) and the fungal pathogens Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk (Tc) and Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.:Pers) Unger, respectively, are important diseases of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives of were to construct a linkage map, and to locate CBB, rust, and WB resistances and plant architecture traits using RAPDs. Ten linkage groups were identified. Eighty-nine RAPD markers and rust resistance were mapped in 128 RI lines of the cross BAC-6 and HT-7719. Regression analysis and interval mapping using MAPMAKER/QTL were used to identify genomic regions involved in the genetic control of the traits. One, two, two, and three putative QTLs were identified for leaf, seed, and pod reactions to Xcp, and foliar reaction to Tc. These regions accounted for 11%, 9%, 32%, and 30% of the phenotypic variation in the resistances. Two, two, and three regions were identified for plant uprightness, branch density, and pod distribution. These regions accounted for 27%, 13%, and 16% of the phenotypic variation. Unassigned marker G17d influenced some of the phenotypic variation in all three traits. A rust resistance gene controlling pustule size on primary leaves was located in linkage group 1.
Geunhwa Jung, Dermot P. Coyne, Paul W. Skroch, James Nienhuis, E. Arnaud-Santana, James Bokosi, H.M. Ariyarathne, James R. Steadman, James S. Beaver, and Shawn M. Kaeppler
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to construct a partial linkage map in a recombinant inbred population derived from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cross BAC 6 × HT 7719 for studying the genetics of disease resistance in common bean. The linkage map spanned 545 cM and included 75 of 84 markers used in this study. The population of 128 recombinant inbred lines was evaluated for resistance to common bacterial blight, foliar resistance to web blight [WB; Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk], and resistance to rust [Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus (Pers.:Pers) Unger]. Common bacterial blight [CBB; Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye] resistance was evaluated for CBB strain Epif-IV in later-developed trifoliolate leaves and for CBB strain EK-11 in seeds, first trifoliolate leaves, later-developed trifoliolate leaves, and pods. In addition, lines were rated for plant uprightness and branch density. Two to six markers accounted for 14% to 34% of the phenotypic variation for each trait. Significant marker locustrait associations were found for 14 mapped loci and 7 of the 9 unmapped markers. The distribution of detected QTL appeared to be nonrandom with most significant markers associated with more than one trait or closely linked to markers significantly associated with variation for a different trait. One marker, BC4091250, was significantly associated with WB resistance, resistance for CBB strain Epif-IV in later-developed trifoliolate leaves, and resistance for CBB strain EK-11 in first trifoliolate leaves, later-developed trifoliolate leaves, and pods. A rust resistance gene was mapped in an interval 14.6 cM from RAPD marker H191050 and 12.5 cM from marker AJ16250.