Leatherleaf fern [Rumohra adiantiformis (Forst.) Ching] fronds produced under a high-temperature regime (HTR, 30 day/25C night) grew faster and produced sori earlier than those in a low-temperature regime (LTR, 20 day/15C night). Abaxial diffusive conductance was lower for HTR-grown fronds. Light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn) and dark respiration were lower for HTR fronds, but light-saturated Pn efficiencies (chlorophyll basis); light compensation points; and soluble sugars, starch, and nonstructural carbohydrate levels were similar for the two regimes. Transpiration and water-use efficiency (mass basis) at light saturation were similar for fronds from both temperature treatments. Comparison of physiological characteristics of fronds from the two temperature regimes revealed no differences that might account for reduced postharvest longevity of fronds produced at the higher temperatures.
Robert H. Stamps, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
James A. Stamp, Sheila M. Colby, and Carole P. Meredith
Adventitious shoots developed within 3 weeks from the petiolar stub and, less often, from wounded lamina tissues when leaves excised from nodal cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. French Colombard and Thompson Seedless were cultured on solid Nitsch and Nitsch medium containing BAP at 2 mg·liter-1. The youngest leaf that could be excised, from 1 to 8 mm long, was the most responsive (90% of explants producing shoots compared to 16% for leaf 6). Removal of the lamina from the petiolar stub within the first 3 weeks of culture reduced shoot production. Increase in nodal culture age, without transfer to fresh medium, had no effect on subsequent regeneration from the youngest leaves but did reduce the regeneration frequency of leaves at the next position from 43% to 20%. In regularly subculture nodal cultures, the number of transfers had no effect on subsequent regeneration. Leaves from recently established shoot tip cultures were more responsive than leaves from nodal cultures. The frequency of shoot production was higher in laterally bisected than intact leaves (70% vs. 43%) due to additional regeneration from the distal leaf half at the sites of severed veins. Shoot outgrowth was promoted by the isolation and subculture of regenerating tissue to fresh regeneration medium. Petiolar stub removal promoted de novo shoot organogenesis from the resulting lamina wound. Shoots rooted at a high frequency on Murashige and Skoog medium with 1 mg IA-A/liter and produced morphologically normal plants. Chemical names used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP); indole-3-acetic acid (IAA).
Wendy J. Wagoner, Jill A. Kellogg, Richard K. Bestwick, and James A Stamp
Broccoli and cauliflower are among the most regeneratively intractable genotypes found in the brassicaceae. To develop a method for transfer of the gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase) into inbred broccoli and cauliflower germplasm, we investigated the morphogenic competence and Agrobacterium susceptibility of a wide range of tissues of varied source. Appropriately controlled expression of the SAMase gene should, theoretically, reduce the plant's capacity for ethylene biosynthesis and extend the post harvest shelf life of the flower head.
Through examination of the in vitro response of a wide range of tissues we identified procedures which support caulogenesis from 100% of explants, each producing more than 30 shoots which readily convert to plantlets. Studies with several wild type and disarmed Agrobacterium strains, and utilization of the binary vector system and appropriate marker and reporter genes, led to the identification of methods for high frequency T-DNA transfer to explant tissues and the flow frequency of transgenic plants containing SAMase gene.
Sheila M. Colby, Adrian M. Juncosa, James A. Stamp, and Carole P. Meredith
The developmental anatomy of direct shoot organogenesis from in vitro leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. French Colombard was studied by light microscopy. Regenerating petiole stubs of leaf explants were fixed at intervals and were sectioned longitudinally to determine the developmental sequence of direct shoot organogenesis. After 6 days, three distinct regions of meristematic activity were apparent within expanding petiole stub: the wound-response, organogenic, and vascularization regions. In the organogenic region, divisions of vacuolate outer cortical cells formed nodular bumps that sometimes became adventitious leaves. Promeristems, which had the potential to become adventitious shoot meristems, were also initiated asynchronously in the organogenic region. Promeristem initiation occurred by two or several synchronous cell divisions occurring in the epidermal and subepidermal cell layers. Adventitious shoots and leaves developed new vascular bundles that connected to the pre-existing vascular bundles of the explant.