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  • Author or Editor: Jae-Ho Lee x
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Fatty acid is known as a physiologically active compound, and its composition in rice may affect human health in countries where rice is the major diet. The fatty acid composition in brown rice of 120 Korean native cultivars was determined by one-step extraction/methylation method and GC. The average composition of 9 detectable fatty acids in tested rice cultivars were as followings: myristic acid; 0.6%, palmitic acid; 21.2%, stearic acid; 1.8%, oleic acid; 36.5%, linoleic acid; 36.3%, linolenic acid; 1.7%, arachidic acid; 0.5%, behenic acid; 0.4%, and lignoceric acid; 0.9%. Major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid, which composed around 94%. The rice cultivar with the highest linolenic acid was cv. Jonajo (2.1%), and cvs. Pochoenjangmebye and Sandudo showed the highest composition of palmitic (23.4%) and oleic acid (44.8%), respectively. Cultivar Pochuenjangmebye exhitibed the highest composition of saturated fatty acid (28.1%), while cvs. Sandudo and Modo showed the highest mono-unsaturated (44.8%) and poly-unsaturated (42.4%) fatty acid composition, respectively. The oleic acid showed negative correlation with palmitic and linoleic acid, while positive correlation between behenic and lignoceric acids was observed.

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Red pepper, as an ingredient of Kimchi, is an important horticultural crop in Korea, and capsaicinoid content is a major factor determining the pungent quality of red pepper. To clarify the factors affecting capsaicinoid content, 122 red pepper samples of 24 varieties were collected from 21 cultivation sites in Cheongyang area, South Korea, and their nordihydrocapsaicin (NDC), capsaicin (CAP), and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) contents were evaluated by using an HPLC. The average content of NDC, CAP, and DHC were 4.8, 74.2, and 26.5 mg/100 g, respectively, and its relative composition ratios were slightly affected by variety or cultivation places. In most cultivation places, capsaicinoid contents showed significant dependence upon variety, in that cv. WangJangKum (225.5 mg/100 g) exhibited 6.2-fold higher total capsaicinoid contents when compared to cv. ChonHaTongIl (36.2 mg/100 g). Even the same cultivar (e.g., WangDaeGum) exhibited almost 2-fold variations according to cultivation places, indicating the dependence of capsaicinoid content of red peppers upon the cultivation sites. Analysis of variance revealed significant variety–cultivation place interactions in CAP, DHC, and total capsaicinoid contents, but not in NDC. This data suggests the necessity of more-careful selection of variety and cultivation place corresponding to the expected pungency of harvested red peppers.

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A cohort of sixth grade students at two newly constructed elementary schools in Seoul, South Korea, performed a self-assessment of ocular discomfort symptoms in association with indoor air quality (IAQ) by indoor plant intervention from early June to mid-Oct. 2011. Indoor plant intervention made little difference in air temperature and relative humidity, but stabilized the increasing levels of carbon dioxide. The indoor concentrations of formaldehyde and ethylbenzene showed little difference, but those of toluene and xylene showed a decreasing trend in classrooms with indoor plants. The participants in classrooms without indoor plants exhibited an increase in ocular discomfort symptoms at School A and a decrease in symptoms at School B; those in classrooms with indoor plants demonstrated a decrease in frequency at both schools. The variation of symptom severity did not follow a clear trend. Participants assessed their symptom severity of ocular discomfort with four options from three points for frequent occurrence to zero points for no occurrence. Among participants in classrooms without indoor plants, symptom severity significantly worsened at both schools as the scores increased from 1.96 to 2.17 at School A and from 2.27 to 2.34 at School B; among those in classrooms with indoor plants, symptom severity significantly lessened at School A and slightly worsened at School B as the scores decreased from 2.33 to 1.98 at School A and increased from 2.35 to 2.42 at School B. After spending the experimental duration in classrooms without indoor plants at both schools, 34.8% of participants at School A and 33.3% of participants at School B perceived their symptom severity as having increased. At Schools A and B, indoor plants decreased the frequency of participants experiencing an increase of symptom severity by 13.0% and 9.7%, and increased the frequency of participants reporting decrease of symptom severity by 34.8% and 22.6%.

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