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  • Author or Editor: Jacqueline Burns x
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Oxygen uptake and glycosidase activities were examined in normal and granulated juice vesicles of several citrus fruit. Oxygen uptake was low in normal juice vesicles isolated from freshly harvested `Lee' tangelos [Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Clementine × (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan × Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Dancy)] and stored `Dancy' tangerine (C. reticulate Blanco) and `Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) (35.7, 17.9, and 11.6 μl O2/hr per g fresh weight, respectively), but was 2- to 3-fold higher in granulated juice vesicles. As severity of granulation increased in grape. fruit, O2 uptake increased. Oxygen uptake in normal and disordered juice vesicles of all citrus fruit examined was reduced to nondetectable levels with 0.1 mM KCN and was insensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid. α - and β -galactosidase and α- and β -glucosidase activities were present in extracts of normal grapefruit juice vesicles (123, 214, 51, and 25 nmol·hr-1·g-1 fresh weight, respectively) and was 2- to 3-fold higher in extracts of granulated tissue. α- and β -mannosidase activities, nondetectable in normal juice vesicle extracts, were present in extracts from granulated tissue. The results suggest that increased metabolic activity occurs in granulated juice vesicles and the energy produced may be used to support cell wall synthesis and modification. Increases in O2 uptake and glycosidase activities correlate well with observed symptoms of section-drying in citrus.

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1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is a gaseous ethylene-binding inhibitor used to control or delay ethylene-related postharvest effects in a range of horticultural commodities. The potential for preharvest applications of 1-MCP to prevent unwanted defoliation using ethephon to loosen mature citrus fruit is presented. Although there was no difference in mature fruit loosening by ethephon + 1-MCP treatments, 1-MCP reduced defoliation caused by ethephon. The gaseous nature of 1-MCP is an impediment to uniform application and consistent efficacy. A sprayable 1-MCP formulation would be of great value for preharvest use in many horticultural crops.

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Chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching parameters were measured in 20 genotypes of Citrus spp. or relatives grown in the greenhouse and commercial ‘Valencia’ sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees at two Florida locations. The purpose was to determine the utility of measurements for early huanglongbing [HLB (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus)] detection in asymptomatic trees and to examine the leaf response to HLB infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative healthy and PCR-positive symptomatic, asymptomatic, and distant asymptomatic leaves were used for fluorescence analysis using a portable chlorophyll fluorometer. Greenhouse-grown genotypes were separated into mild, moderate, and severe symptom groups based on leaf mottling, color, and size. In general, mild symptom genotypes were characterized by increased photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure and unregulated heat dissipation and decreased regulated heat dissipation, whereas moderate and severe symptom genotypes increased loss of photosynthetic efficiency and increased unregulated and regulated heat dissipation. Distant asymptomatic leaves could be distinguished from healthy ones in moderate and severe symptom genotypes by increased total and regulated heat dissipation measurements. In the field, overall photosynthetic efficiency and total regulated heat dissipation measurements could distinguish between healthy and asymptomatic ‘Valencia’ sweet orange leaves at the location with slow or more recent infection, but not at the location where infection appeared to progress faster or was of longer duration. Starch content followed a similar pattern. The results indicate that no single measurement uniquely described the relationship between HLB and the host in asymptomatic and healthy leaves, but accuracy of field-based detection could be strengthened by a combination of total nonphotochemical quenching, overall photosynthetic efficiency, starch content, and PCR analyses. Chlorophyll fluorescence and quenching measurements suggest a PSII-based explanation for, and temperature dependency of, leaf symptom development.

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Mature and immature `Valencia' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and immature `Valencia' orange and `Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tan.) fruit with attached pedicels were treated with 8 μL·L-1 ethylene for periods up to 24 hours. Endo-β-1,4-glucanase (cellulase) activity and gene expression were determined in fruit abscission zones during and after ethylene exposure. Cellulase activities were not detected in mature `Valencia' orange and immature `Tahiti' lime fruit abscission zones immediately following harvest and after 6 hours of ethylene treatment. After 12 hours of ethylene treatment, cellulase activity increased and was highest after 24 hours. Cellulase gene expression preceded the rise in cellulase activity and was detectable after 6 hours of ethylene treatment, but then declined after 12 hours. Following transfer to air storage, abscission zone cellulase activity in mature `Valencia' fruit remained high, whereas activity in immature `Tahiti' fruit declined. After 168 hours air storage, activity in abscission zones of mature `Valencia' fruit decreased slightly, but activity in abscission zones of immature `Tahiti' lime fruit increased to the highest level. Expression of abscission zone cellulase gene Cel-a1 in abscission zones of mature `Valencia' fruit markedly increased after transfer to air and was highest after 48 hours air storage. Cel-a1 expression returned to low levels after 168 hours of air storage, but expression of cellulase gene Cel-b1 remained at low levels throughout the air storage period. Expression of Cel-a1 and Cel-b1 declined in fruit abscission zones of immature `Valencia' and `Tahiti' lime fruit upon transfer to air. After 168 hours of air storage, expression of Cel-a1 again rose to high levels but Cel-b1 remained low. The results suggest that differences in cellulase activity and gene expression measured in mature and immature fruit abscission zones during ethylene treatment and subsequent air storage may, in part, explain the differential response of mature and immature fruit to abscission agents.

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Abstract

Ca2+ content in cell wall-middle lamella (CW–ML) areas of outer and inner pericarp, placenta, and gel parenchyma of ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cvs. Celebrity and Jumbo) and mesocarp of ripening peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Georgia Belle] was determined by energy dispersive (EDS) X-ray microanalysis. Ca2+ increased from 1.50 to 6.95 mg·g–1 dry weight in CW–ML of outer pericarp and 0.98 to 2.60 mg·g–1 dry weight in CW–ML of inner pericarp during ripening. Ca2+ content remained constant in tomato placenta and peach mesocarp, and was undetectable in tomato gel parenchyma throughout ripening. CW–ML of peach mesocarp had lower Ca2+ content than tomato pericarp and placenta at all ripening stages, but total peach uronic acid content was 2.5 times greater. Pectin methylesterase (PME) activity increased in tomato pericarp as fruit ripened, but remained low and unchanged in placenta and gel parenchyma. PME treatment of pericarp increased amounts of CW–ML Ca2+ in the breaker stage but not in the green mature stage. The results indicate that increased amounts of Ca2+ are bound to CW–ML of tomato pericarp as ripening occurs but not in placenta or peach mesocarp. Pectin deesterification and wall softening during ripening may in part be factors that control the presence and amount of CW–ML Ca2+.

Open Access

Abstract

Normal and collapsed juice vesicles were removed from stored late-harvested grapefruit segments (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Marsh) and the cell wall anatomy of epidermal and internal parenchyma was compared with light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. Normal juice vesicles were turgid and elongate, and epidermal cells and internal parenchyma were intact. Collapsed juice vesicles appeared flattened, and internal parenchyma were compressed. Cell wall thickening occurred in internal parenchyma and single or clustered epidermal cells of collapsed vesicles. Cell walls of the same cells in normal vesicles were thin. Epidermal and internal parenchyma cell walls of collapsed vesicles were 10 to 50 to 10 to 20 times the thickness, respectively, of corresponding normal cell walls. Lignin was detected in thickened cell walls of epidermal and internal parenchyma of collapsed vesicles. The results suggest that cell wall synthesis in vesicles is a symptom of section drying in grapefruit.

Open Access

Abstract

Pectin methylesterase (PME, EC 3.1.1.11) was added to locular gel and pericarp of ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cell wall alterations were examined. Treatment of mature tomato locular gel with purified PME resulted in release of protoplasts. No protoplasts could be detected from immature locular gel or pericarp at any ripening stage examined under similar conditions. Net solubilization of pectins occurred with PME treatment in both tissues. Pectins solubilized with buffer or PME were of high molecular weight. Maximum protoplast release and pectin solubilization occurred at pH 5.0. Increased pectin solubilization in locular gel and pericarp is a result of polygalacturonase action on PME-induced deesterified pectin, the preferred substrate. Release of protoplasts from PME-treated mature locular gel suggests that maturation in this tissue involves alterations in cell wall structure that do not occur in pericarp.

Open Access

The effect of temperature on the ability of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon to induce ethylene evolution and abscission of mature fruit and leaves was determined using 3-year-old potted `Hamlin' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees in environment-controlled growth rooms in seasons 2001-02 and 2002-03. Ethylene evolution and abscission of CMNP or ethephon-treated fruit and ethephon-treated leaves were highly temperature dependent. Fruit detachment force (FDF) and fruit ethylene evolution were not affected by application of ethephon at 200 mg·L-1 or CMNP at 200 mg·L-1 when air temperature was 10 °C for ethephon treatment or ≤15.6 °C for CMNP treatment. However, ethylene evolution of CMNP or ethephon-treated fruit increased sharply, and FDF decreased drastically as temperature increased from 10 to 26.7 °C for ethephon treatment or from 15.6 to 26.7 °C for CMNP treatment. Several 10 hour day/14 hour night temperature regimes were explored to determine the effect of varying daily and nightly temperatures on efficacy and ethylene evolution. At least 3 days of exposure to 21/10 °C were required for CMNP to effectively loosen fruit, whereas only one day of exposure to 26.7/15.6 °C was enough to induce similar changes. At 21/10 °C, CMNP significantly reduced FDF to<25 N and markedly enhanced fruit ethylene evolution, regardless of interruption by 1 day of low temperature at 10/10 °C in the first 5 d after application. Ethephon had no significant effect on leaf ethylene evolution and leaf abscission when temperature was 10 °C, but caused a marked increase in both leaf ethylene evolution and leaf abscission as temperature increased from 10 to 26.7 °C. CMNP did not stimulate leaf ethylene evolution and leaf abscission regardless of temperature. Chemical names used: 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1 H-Pyrazole (CMNP); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

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