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  • Author or Editor: Jackie L. Harris x
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One of the most popular winegrapes (Vitis sp.) for red wine production in the midwestern United States is ‘Chambourcin’, a French-American hybrid. It is typically produced on own-rooted vines in the region, but the potential benefits of grafting it to improved rootstocks are becoming better-known. Nematodes present occasional serious winegrape production challenges in the midwestern United States, and are capable of transmitting pathogenic viruses. New rootstocks developed by University of California, Davis (UCD GRN series) are resistant to several species and races of nematodes, but have not been evaluated under midwestern U.S. production conditions. A study with ‘Chambourcin’ grafted to four of these new nematode-resistant rootstocks (‘UCD GRN-2’, ‘UCD GRN-3’, ‘UCD GRN-4’, and ‘UCD GRN-5’) and ‘Couderc 3309’, along with own-rooted vines was established in 2010 in southwest Missouri, and fruited in 2013–15. Three of the nematode-resistant rootstocks (GRN-2, 3, 4) performed as well as the standard ‘Couderc 3309’ and own-rooted vines, with yields among all rootstocks ranging from 10 to 13 kg/vine. The rootstock ‘UCD GRN-5’ generally performed poorly, however, manifested by low pruning weights and a high Ravaz index value (25) in 2013 that necessitated defruiting the vines in 2014. Fruit yields on ‘UCD GRN-5’ rootstocks were satisfactory in 2013 and 2015, but the vines eventually deteriorated, with 99% shootless nodes by 2017. Although more evaluations of these new rootstocks are needed in the midwestern United States, we conclude that ‘UCD GRN-2’, ‘UCD GRN-3’, and ‘UCD GRN-4’ show promise, whereas ‘UCD GRN-5’ does not appear suitable for growing conditions in southern Missouri.

Open Access

An evaluation of establishment techniques and rootstocks for ‘Chambourcin’ hybrid grape (Vitis sp.) was conducted 2009–12. Our objective was to evaluate four establishment methods and their interactions with grafted and ungrafted vines in terms of vine morphology and early fruit production under southwest Missouri conditions. The study was established in May 2009, as a factorial experiment comparing four establishment methods (open-trained without protection—two shoots, grow tube protected—two shoots, paperboard carton protected—two shoots, and fan-trained without protection—six shoots) across two vine types (own-rooted and grafted to ‘Couderc 3309’ hybrid grape rootstock). All vines in four of 12 field replications were destructively harvested near the conclusion of the first growing season, with leaf area and total vine dry matter determined. In years 3 and 4, yield, fruit composition, and vegetative growth were determined from the eight remaining replications. The fan training method increased leaf area and total vine dry matter compared with the other methods, but none of the establishment techniques affected fruit yield. Trunks that were tube protected had longer internodes, smaller diameter, and less dry matter, whereas both protection devices reduced glyphosate injury. Vine type (grafted and ungrafted) did not impact total leaf area or dry weight during the establishment year, but grafted vines had increased trunk and root shank dry weights compared with own-rooted vines. Grafted vines produced greater fruit yield in 2012. The fan training method required more labor to execute; although it was successful at increasing leaf area and root dry weight, it increased susceptibility to glyphosate injury and did not promote increased precocity or early fruit yield.

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In the midwestern United States, especially Missouri, winegrape (Vitis sp.) growers mostly plant interspecific hybrids, which are well adapted to the climate and pests of the region. ‘Chambourcin’ (an interspecific French-American hybrid) is one of the most widely planted winegrape cultivars in the area. It is usually grown as own-rooted (nongrafted) vines because the economic and horticultural benefits of grafting this cultivar to rootstocks have not been well developed. Further, few significant winegrape rootstock evaluations have been conducted in the midwestern United States, including evaluations of newer rootstocks developed and released by private and public breeding programs. The aim of this study was to assess the potential value of using rootstocks in ‘Chambourcin’ production in southern Missouri, with implications for the midwestern United States. Fruit yield, vine growth, and fruit composition metrics from ‘Chambourcin’ on 10 different root systems [own-rooted, and grafted to rootstocks ‘Couderc 3309’, ‘Couderc 1616’, ‘Paulsen 1103’, ‘Sélection Oppenheim 4’, ‘Millardet et de Grasset 420A’, ‘Millardet et de Grasset 101-14’, ‘Kingfisher’, ‘Matador’ (all Vitis sp.), and ‘Gloire de Montpellier’ riverbank grape (Vitis riparia)] in an experimental vineyard in southwest Missouri were compared. Following three establishment years (2008–10), data were collected across four growing and vintage seasons (2011–14). Yield components evaluated included total fruit production, clusters per vine, cluster weight, berry weight, weight of cane prunings, and crop load. Petiole mineral analysis was conducted in 2011, 2013, and 2014. Grape juice attributes measured were soluble solids concentration, juice pH, titratable acidity (TA), potassium (K), anthocyanins, tannins, phenolics, and organic acids. When simply comparing grafted vs. ungrafted vines, grafting generally induced higher plant vigor and a higher pH in the juice, whereas the other parameters did not differ. When the performances were compared among the 10 root systems, vines grafted to ‘Couderc 3309’ had higher yields compared with vines grafted to six other rootstocks and own-rooted vines. Grafting to ‘Millardet et de Grasset 101-14’ induced higher cluster weight compared with the other rootstocks. The ‘Millardet et de Grasset 420A’ rootstock promoted a higher pH and TA as well as a higher concentration of K in the juice, and ‘Paulsen 1103’ also promoted high pH, TA, and malic acid in the juice, and higher concentrations of phosphorous (P) and K in the petiole compared with most rootstocks. ‘Gloire de Montpellier’ induced a lower P content in the petiole and a higher tartaric/malic acid ratio. Rootstock use can strongly influence some vineyard production metrics as well as nutrient uptake and K levels in the juice (the latter further influencing juice pH). The results of this study provide insights into the complex viticultural and enological interactions resulting from the use of rootstocks in hybrid winegrape production in Missouri, USA.

Open Access