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C.K. Palmer, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever, J.W. Olive and D.J. Eakes

Pampas grass seedlings in 72-cell pack containers were transplanted into containers with a root observation window (17.8 × 10.2 cm) and treated with selected preemergence applied herbicides. Root numbers were counted in the upper and lower 8.9 cm of the viewing window until 16 days after treatment (DAT) when the windows became full of roots. Root growth in both the upper and lower window was suppressed with application of Factor 65 WG and Pendulum 60 WDG at the X and 2X rates at 16 DAT. Ronstar 2G and Pendulum 2G at the recommended rates and nontreated control plants had similar root numbers at 16 DAT. At 16 DAT, the greatest number of club roots formed on plants treated with the dinitroaniline herbicides; Pendulum 2G, Pendulum 60 WDG, and Factor 65 WG. Shoot growth was not affected by treatment.

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D.J. Eakes, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever and J.W. Olive

Uniform liners of Soft Touch Holly (Ilex crenata 'Soft Touch') and Fashion azalea {Rhododendron 'Fashion') were potted into trade gallon containers of a 3: 1 by volume pinebark: peat moss medium amended with 8.3 kg of 17-7-12 Osmocote and 0.9 kg of Micromax per m3. Dolomitic limestone rates were 0,3, and 6 kg per m3 of medium applied as a finely ground or pelletized product. Medium solution pH increased with increasing rate of dolomitic limestone. Ground dolomitic limestone had a greater impact on medium solution pH than pelletized dolomitic limestone and differences increased as rate increased. Addition of ground dolomitic limestone at 6 kg per m3 reduced foliar color and growth of azalea. Amending with dolomitic limestone had little or no effect on holly foliar color or growth, regardless of rate.

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C. H. Gilliam, D. J. Eakes, J. W. Olive and M. Thetford

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate commonly used granular preemergence herbicides applied prior to the sticking of cuttings in propagation. Rooting percentage of the three cultivars, `Trouper' azalea, `Hino-Crimson' azalea, and `August Beauty' gardenia, was not affected in experiment 1. However, all three species exhibited some reduction in root quality or root length with all herbicides. In general, the herbicides with the least suppression were: Ronstar, Southern WeedGrass Control, OH-2, Snapshot 2.5 TG, and Rout. The second experiment with `August Beauty' gardenia evaluated the effect of cuttings depth in overcoming the negative herbicide effects on root development. The results were similar to those obtained in experiment 1.

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Gary J. Keever, WJ. Foster, J.W. Olive and Mark S. West

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J.S. Glenn, C.H. Gilliam, J.H. Edwards, G.J. Keever, P.R. Knight and J.W. Olive

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate recycled newspaper products as nutrient filters in the bottom of containers. In Expt. 1 with poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch `Glory', three paper products were evaluated: ground paper, paper crumble, and paper pellets; each placed 2 or 3 cm deep in the bottom of containers, so that drainage holes were covered. Leachate samples were collected at the first irrigation after each liquid fertilization. Nitrate (NO3 --N) and ammonium (NH4 +-N) leachate concentrations were reduced up to 84% with recycled paper pellets, compared to the control (no paper). Recycled paper retained up to 732 mg of nitrogen (N) per container (paper pellets 3 cm deep). Shoot dry weight was reduced with paper pellets but was not affected by ground paper or paper crumble. In Expt. 2, `Freedom Red' poinsettias were grown with either single weekly applications of 500 mg·L-1 N from Peter's 20N-4.3P-16.6K, or 200 mg·L-1 N at each irrigation (2 or 3 times a week, as needed). Recycled paper treatments included paper crumble or paper pellets placed 2.5 cm deep in the bottom of containers, and a control without paper. Leachate NO3 --N and NH4 +-N concentrations were reduced up to 100% and 94%, respectively, 6 days after planting (DAP), and up to 57% and 50%, respectively, 25 DAP with paper crumble compared to nonpaper control. Paper pellets in the bottom of containers retained up to 776 mg N per container. Poinsettia shoot dry weight was lowest with paper pellets in the bottom of containers and continuous fertilization.

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Donna C. Fare, Charles H. Gilliam, Gary J. Keever and John W. Olive

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cyclic irrigation on leachate NO3-N concentration, container leachate volume, total effluent volume, and growth of Ilex crenata Thunb. `Compacta'. In Expt. 1, container leachate volume was reduced 34% when 13 mm of water was applied in three cycles compared to continuous irrigation of 13 mm per unit time. Forty-nine percent less container leachate volume was collected from a continuous application of 8 mm than from that of 13 mm water. In Expt. 2, container leachate volume was reduced 71% when 6 mm was applied in a single application over 30 minutes compared to 13 mm applied continuously for 1 hour. Total effluent was reduced by 14% and 10% in Expts. 1 and 2, respectively, when 13-mm irrigation was applied in three cycles compared to one continuous irrigation. Container leachate NO3-N concentrations from cyclic irrigation were generally less than leachate NO3-N concentrations from continuous irrigation treatments. The percentage of applied N leached as NO3-N ranged from 46% when 13-mm irrigation was applied in three cycles to 63% when 13-mm irrigation was applied in a single cycle. Leachate NO3-N concentration was reduced as irrigation volume was reduced from 13 to 6 mm in Expt. 2. Percentage of applied N leached as NO3-N was 63%, 56%, and 47% when 13-mm irrigation was applied in one, two, and three cycles, respectively, compared to 19%, 16%, and 15% when 6-mm irrigation was applied in one, two, and three cycles, respectively. `Compacta' holly shoot and root growth were minimally affected by cyclic irrigation or irrigation volume.