Whole carrots (Daucus carota L.) and midrib tissues of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were treated with 42 μmol·m-3 MCP, then exposed to ethylene. Exposure to 42 μmol·m-3 ethylene at 10 °C increased isocoumarin content ≈40-fold in both peel and pulp of nontreated carrots within 4 days, but treatment with MCP for 4 hours at 20 °C before exposure to ethylene prevented isocoumarin accumulation. Ethylene-induced acidity loss and respiration rate increase in carrots were also prevented by MCP treatment. Ethylene treatment (126 μmol·m-3) of lettuce at 6 °C had induced russet spotting >5% to 10% of the midrib tissue by day 3 and 30% to 35% by day 9, while pretreatment with MCP for 4 hours at 6 °C prevented development of russet spotting. The results indicate that ethylene-induced physiological disorders and quality loss in carrots and iceberg lettuce can be prevented by MCP treatment prior to exposure to ethylene. Chemical name used: 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP).
Apple fruit storage lie is prolonged by low-oxygen cold storage, however, ethanol accumulates when oxygen concentration is reduced below the Pasteur point, Upon return to aerobic conditions, dissipation of ethanol occurs due to physical (evaporation) and biochemical processes. Oxidation of ethanol by apple fruit occurs at a slow rate, but ethanol also serves es a substrate for fruit volatile synthesis. This study was conducted to determine changes in concentrations of ethanol and other non-ethylene apple fruit volatiles following periods of anaerobiosis. `Delicious' apples were obtained from a commercial warehouse and stored at 0.05% O2, 0.2% CO2 and 1 C. One day following return to ambient oxygen conditions, several volatiles were identified from anaerobic fruit that were nor produced by the control fruit. All were eaters that contained an ethyl group as the alcohol-derived portion, These included ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. Several esters produced by the controls were not detectable from anaerobic fruit including butyl butyrate, butyl 2-methyl butyrate, propyl hexanoate and 3-methyl butyl hexanoate. After 7 days ripening at 20 C, the amount of ethanol and the additional ethylesters was reduced in anaerobic fruit. Synthesis of esters produced by control fruit but nor by anaerobic fruit during the initial volatile sampling had resumed after 7 days.
'Elberta' peaches (Prunus persica L.) harvested 6 days apart were treated with 0.5 mL·L-1 1-MCP for 4 hours at 20 °C then stored at 0, 5, 10 or 20 °C. Fruit were ripened at 20 °C for 3 days after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of storage at 0, 5, and 10 °C. Treatment with 1-MCP delayed the onset of climacteric ethylene production and reduced respiration in fruit held at 20 °C. 1-MCP-treated fruit were firmer than untreated controls after storage at 0 or 5 °C. 1-MCP-treated fruit also had higher titratable acidity (TA) after 1 week of storage at 0 or 5 °C, but TA was lower compared to controls after 3 or 6 weeks of storage. Fruit stored at 5 °C had more severe internal browning, lower extractable juice and TA than fruit stored at either 0 or 10 °C, however, 1-MCP treated fruit had more severe internal browning than untreated fruit after 3 and 6 weeks of storage at 5 °C. Fruit from harvest 1 treated with 1-MCP and stored at 0 °C for 6 weeks failed to soften after removal from storage. Chemical name used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).
Quantitative and qualitative changes in net production of volatile compounds by apples occurs during fruit development with a major transition to ester production occurring as fruit ripening begins. Ester production during fruit ripening is an ethylene-mediated response; however, differences in maturation patterns among apple cultivars led us to examine the relationship between ester production and onset of the ethylene climacteric in several commercial apple cultivars. Emission of volatile esters as a function of apple fruit development was evaluated for `Royal Gala', `Bisbee Delicious', `Granny Smith', and `Fuji' apple fruit during two harvest seasons. Apples were harvested weekly and analyses of harvest maturity were performed the day after harvest. Non-ethylene volatiles were collected from intact fruit using dynamic headspace sampling onto Tenax traps. Fruit from each harvest was stored at 1°C in air for 5 months (3 months for `Royal Gala') plus 7 days ripening at 20°C, then apples were evaluated for the development of disorders. The transition to ester production occurred after internal ethylene exceeded 0.1 μL for `Royal Gala', `Bisbee Delicious', and `Fuji'. Ester emission by `Granny Smith' apples remained low throughout the harvest period. Increased ester emission occurred after the optimum harvest date (as determined by the starch index and internal ethylene concentration) for controlled-atmosphere storage of `Bisbee Delicious' and prior to optimum maturity for `Royal Gala' and `Fuji'. A relationship between the potential for development of superficial scald and ester production at harvest was evident only for `Bisbee Delicious' apples.
Enclosing apple fruit in bags during development is widely practiced in Japan. Bags create a barrier that reduces damage from insects and fungal pathogens as well as treatments to control these problems. Bags also reduce the incidence of sunburn and change fruit appearance by altering peel pigmentation composition, two features that have prompted northwestern United States producers to bag `Fuji' apples. Fruit maturity and quality of bagged and nonbagged Fuji apples grown in Washington state were evaluated at harvest and after refrigerated storage in air or controlled atmosphere. Bagged fruit had less watercore and lower ethylene production at harvest compared to non-bagged fruit with similar starch ratings. Bagged fruit had lower soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness at harvest and during storage. Emission of ester and alcohol volatiles was consistently lower for bagged fruit. Postharvest volatile emissions were negatively correlated with bagging duration during development. Bagged fruit had no incidence of a peel disorder with similarity to delayed sunscald.
Fruit quality and volatile compounds produced by apple fruit (Malus ×domestica Borkh. `Gala') were characterized following regular atmosphere (RA) or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage at 1°C. Static CA conditions were 1, 1.9, 2.8, or 3.7 kPa O2. Fruit stored under dynamic CA conditions were exposed to ambient air 1, 2, or 3 days per week for 8 hours then returned to 1 kPa O2. All CA treatments included 2 kPa CO2. Ethylene production was reduced following CA storage plus 1 day at 20°C compared with apples stored in RA. Apples stored in static 1 kPa O2 and the dynamic treatments had lower ethylene production compared with apples stored in 1.9 to 3.7 kPa O2 after 90 and 120 days. Ethylene production by apples from all CA treatments recovered during a 7-day poststorage ripening period at 20°C. Ester production was reduced following CA at 1 kPa O2 after 60 days compared with RA-stored fruit. Production of butyl acetate by apples stored in 1 kPa O2 static CA was 29%, 30%, and 7% of that produced by RA-stored fruit after 60, 90, and 120 days storage plus 7 days at 20°C. Amounts of 2-methylbutyl acetate were not affected by CA storage, however, production of other 2-methylbutyrate esters was reduced following 1 kPa O2 storage. Ester production increased with O2 concentration after 90 days in storage. The dynamic treatments resulted in greater ester emission after 120 days storage plus 7 days at 20°C compared with apples stored in static 1 kPa O2. Production of 1-methoxy-(2-propenyl) benzene by apples subjected to dynamic treatments was also higher after 120 days storage plus 7 days at 20°C compared with apples stored in RA or static CA. No differences in firmness, titratable acidity or soluble solids content were observed between apples stored in 1 kPa O2 and the dynamic treatments. Firmness and titratable acidity were maintained better by dynamic treatments compared with static atmospheres containing > 1 kPa O2.
`Gala' is an early season apple variety that has a distinctive aroma and flavor. Studies were conducted to identify volatile compounds that contribute to `Gala' aroma. `Gala' apples were harvested at optimum maturity in a commercial orchard. Volatile compounds were trapped on activated charcoal using dynamic headspace sampling and eluted with carbon disulfide. Odor profiles of the samples were determined using OSME, a method developed at Oregon State Univ. that combines gas chromatography and olfactometry with a time-intensity scale. Three trained panelists described odor characteristics of compounds eluted through a sniff port of a gas chromatograph. Compounds were identified by matching Kovats indices with those of standards and also by mass spectrometry. Butyl acetate, 2-methyl butyl acetate, and pentyl acetate were characteristic of `Gala' apple. Methyl-2-methyl butyrate, ethyl-2-methyl butyrate, pentyl acetate, and butyl-2-methyl butyrate carried apple-like descriptors.
`Gala' is an early maturing apple variety that has a distinctive aroma and flavor. Its storage season is short and flavor volatile production is reduced following controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. The aroma and flavor characters of `Gala' apples were identified by 10 trained panelists. A vocabulary of 13 descriptors for the aroma of whole and cut fruit and 16 descriptors for flavor were used to characterize the changes of apples stored in CA and/or regular atmosphere (RA) during five months. When compared to RA storage, intensity of fruity (pear, banana and strawberry) and floral characters decreased after 2.5 months in CA for whole and cut fruit aroma and flavor. During the entire storage period under CA, aroma of cut apples retained high vegetative and citrus characters but had a less intense anise aroma. Sourness, starchiness and astringency were significantly higher, however, sweetness was significantly lower. A musty note was perceived in whole apples stored in CA for 5 months. Differences in fruitiness of whole fruit and sourness only were found between fruit stored for 4 months in CA followed by 1 month in RA and fruit stored 5 months in CA. Relationships between panel ratings of specific characters and corresponding quantitative analysis will be discussed.
Synthesis of non-ethylene volatiles (NEV) undergoes significant alterations during the transition from vegetative growth to senescence in apple fruit. This change results in a substantial increase in the production of esters characteristic of ripe apples. The relationship between changes in NEV synthesis and other indicators of physiological and horticultural maturity were investigated using `Bisbee Delicious' apples. Analysis of NEV was conducted using headspace sampling and GC-MS. Aldehydes and alcohols were the largest NEV components from pre-climacteric fruit although several esters were detected. The concentration of all NEV components declined to a minimum prior to the onset of the climacteric rise in ethylene synthesis. Initial detection of 2-methyl butylacetate, the major ester in ripening `Bisbee Delicious' fruit, occurred several weeks prior to the onset of the climacteric. The increase in ester synthesis accelerated during the post-climacteric period and the amount of total aldehydes also increased.
`Fuji' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruits were harvested periodically prior to and during fruit ripening. Ethylene evolution and respiration rates of skin, hypanthial, and carpellary tissue was determined in each fruit. Additionally, whole fruits were used for analyses of internal ethylene concentration, volatile evolution, starch content, flesh firmness, and soluble solids content. Ethylene production was greatest in the carpellary tissue at all sampling dates except the one occurring just before the rise in whole fruit internal ethylene concentration, when production in the skin and carpellary tissue was similar. Respiration was always highest in the skin, in which the climacteric rise was most drastic. Higher ethylene production in the carpellary tissue of pre- and postclimacteric fruit and higher respiration in the skin tissue, including a noticeable climacteric rise, is indicative of a ripening initiation signal originating and/or transduced through the carpels to the rest of the fruit.