Forty-two Lycopersicon pennellii Corr. D'Arcy accessions, from the Tomato Genetics Stock Center, were inoculated for resistance to Fusarium wilt race 3 at the 3-leaf and cotyledon stage. All were over 90% healthy when inoculated at the 3-leaf stage but had greater disease incidence at the cotyledon stage. Crosses were made between healthy plants within each accession. Using this seed, 39 accessions were 100% healthy and 3 were over 96% healthy when inoculated at either stage. Seventeen F1's with susceptible parents were tested for race 3 and all had over 80% healthy plants. Twenty-two accessions were tested for Fusarium wilt race 1 and race 2. For race 1, 21 were 100% healthy and 1 was 91% healthy, For race 2, 20 were 100% healthy, 1 was 96% healthy, and 1 was 75% healthy. Forty accessions were screened for Fusarium crown rot and Verticillium wilt. For crown rot, LA 1277, LA 1367, and LA 1657 were over 95% healthy, 6 other accessions were over 68% healthy and several others had over 50% healthy plants, All 40 were susceptible to Verticillium wilt race 1. L. pennellii appears to be a good source of resistance to Fusarium sp. but not to Verticillium wilt.
J.W. Scott and J.P. Jones
J.W. Scott and J.P. Jones
Lycopersicon pennellii accession LA 1277 was crossed to tomato (L. esculentum) and the F1 was backcrossed to tomato. Self-pollinated seed was saved from backcross plants and seedlings derived were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f.sp. radicus-lycopersici Jarvis and Shoemaker, the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR). Seed was saved from resistant plants that were self-pollinated and screened until homozygous resistance was verified five generations after the backcross. Three homozygous lines were crossed to Fla. 7547, a tomato breeding line susceptible to FCRR but resistant to Fusarium wilt races 1, 2, and 3. Subsequently, backcrosses were made to each parent and F2 seed were obtained. The three homozygous FCRR-resistant lines were also crossed to Ohio 89-1, which has a dominant gene for FCRR resistance presently being used in breeding programs. F2 seed were obtained from these crosses. These generations were inoculated with the FCRR pathogen. The resistant parents, F1, and backcross to the resistant parents were all healthy. The backcross to the susceptible parent and the F2 segregated healthy to susceptible plants in 1:1 and 3:1 ratios, respectively. Thus, the resistance from LA 1277 was inherited as a single dominant gene. This gene was different than the gene from Ohio 89-1 because susceptible segregants were detected in the F2 generation derived from the two resistant sources.
G. Cameron Somodi, J.B. Jones, J.W. Scott and J.P. Jones
A `spray-inoculation seedling screening procedure was developed for detecting resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye, causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Two-week-old transplants were preconditioned under 95% humidity for 16 hours before spray inoculation and then rated for bacterial spot 2 weeks later. Resistant plants could also be distinguished from susceptible genotypes using a modified bacterial speck [Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Okabe) Young, Dye, and Wilkie] screening procedure (cotyledon-dip technique). When results of both screening methods were compared to field ratings from three previous seasons, significant correlations were more frequently observed for the spray-inoculation method. In Summer 1991, individual plants were evaluated by the spray-inoculation technique and then were placed in the field to determine susceptibility under field conditions. Correlations (r = 0.28 to 0.34) between spray-inoculation seedling screening ratings and field ratings, although low, were significant (P ≤ 0.0001). More than 90% of susceptible plants could be eliminated, saving labor, space, and time.
J.W. Scott, H.A. Agrama and J.P. Jones
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) line E427 has resistance genes to all three races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici derived from L. pennellii accession LA 716 and L. pimpinellifolium accession PI 126915. To determine genes that confer resistance to specific races of fusarium wilt, line E427 was crossed to susceptible `Bonny Best' and then F2 and backcross (to `Bonny Best') seed were obtained. Self-pollinations resulted in 337 lines and progeny of each line was inoculated separately with fusarium wilt races 1, 2, or 3. Plants from lines whose segregation suggested recombination of resistance were self-pollinated and reinoculated until disease reactions were homozygous. Four lines were obtained with resistance to both races 2 and 3, but susceptible to race 1. These lines had the L. pennellii alleles at restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to I-3 on chromosome 7 and lacked L. pimpinellifolium alleles linked to I and I-2 on chromosome 11. Complementation (F2) data indicated race 2 resistance on chromosome 7 was controlled by a single dominant gene. Three lines were resistant to race 2, but susceptible to races 1 and 3. These lines had L. pimpinellifolium alleles at TG105 and flanking markers encompassing a 14.4 cM region indicating the presence of I-2, and no L. pennellii alleles at markers linked to I-3. Three lines were resistant to race 1, but susceptible to races 2 and 3. All three lines had L. pimpinellifolium alleles at TG523 confirming linkage to I on chromosome 11 and no L. pennellii alleles at markers tightly linked to I-3. However, one of the lines, 415, had L. pennellii alleles at CT113 on chromosome 7. This data along with F2 complementation data suggests the possible existence of a second race 1 resistant locus, I1, in this region. The four lines resistant to both races 2 and 3 were backcrossed again to `Bonny Best' and self-pollinated progeny from 174 plants were screened as described above. Two lines derived from different BC1S1 lines that were fusarium wilt race 3 resistant and susceptible to race 1 had intermediate resistance to race 2. These two lines did not have the L. pennellii alleles at TG183, TG174, and CT43 near the I-3 locus indicating crossovers in this region resulted in reduced race 2 resistance. Collectively, this is the first clear break in the fusarium wilt race 2 and race 1 resistance linkage on chromosome 11. It appears that the race 1 resistance derived from PI 126915 is controlled by the I gene. On chromosome 7, there was a break between the I-3 and I1 genes indicating I-3 does not confer race 1 resistance. The crossovers resulting in reduced resistance to race 2 could be within a complex I-3 locus or a tightly linked race 2 locus.
S.S. Woltz, J.P. Jones and J.W. Scott
Media and nutrient variables were investigated to develop methods of reducing the incidence and severity of fusarium crown rot incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. radicis-lycopersici Jarvis & Shoemaker (FORL), a disease problem of current importance with tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Root-dip inoculated seedlings were transplanted into trays of a 1 Canadian peat: 1 vermiculite medium that had been prepared with factorial combinations of CaCO, (0.75 or 3.0 kg·m), Ca(NO) or (NH) SO (each at 225 mg N/liter), and NaCl at 0 or 2000 mg Na/liter as the experimental treatments. Crown rot was more severe with the lower CaCO rate, with (NH) SO, and supplemental NaCI. Data on fresh weight of seedlings expressed as percentage values relative to the noninoculated controls supported observations on disease severity.
T. Jones, J. Strang, G. Brown and P. Wolfe
Kentucky is one of seven states in the southeast evaluating 13 Asian pear cultivars for suitability to the region. The cultivars were planted on a (20′ × 10′) spacing in 1989 at three separate locations. Data on time of bloom, tree growth, fire blight susceptibility and fruit quality and yield were collected. This study demonstrates the variability seen in Asian pear cultivars in response to site. There was a significant site by cultivar interaction for fire blight. The Princeton site had significantly more fire blight than either Lexington or Quicksand. Four cultivars, Niitaka, Shin Li, Shinko and Shinseiki had low fire blight ratings which were not significantly different between the three sites. Asian pear growth rates were significantly different between the three sites, but cultivar growth rates were not. Tree growth rate showed a significant negative correlation to fire blight rating. That is infected trees did not grow much. Initial findings show Shinko, Shinseiki and Niitaka to have some tolerance to fire blight spread and to produce good yields of attractive fruit. However, Niitaka had a very tough skin with a tendency towards fruit cracking. The cultivar Shin Li which also had fire blight tolerance did not produce fruit or flowers.
P.D. Dukes, Alfred Jones and J.M. Schalk
S.J. Locascio, J.P. Gilreath, D.W. Dickson, T.A. Kucharek, J.P. Jones and J.W. Noling
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown to evaluate various chemicals as possible alternatives to methyl bromide as a soil fumigant. Due to pest pressures from weeds, nematodes, and soil fungi, the use of a broad-spectrum fumigant is essential for economical tomato production. Methyl bromide (MBr) is the fumigant of choice for most growers using polyethylene mulch culture. In 1991, MBr was identified to be in a group of chemicals allegedly responsible for depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has since called for a phaseout of MBr by the year 2001. At several locations in Florida, alternative soil fumigants were evaluated including 98% MBr-2% chloropicrin (Pic) at 450 kg·ha–1, 67% MBr 33% –Pic (392 kg·ha–1), Pic (390 kg·ha–1), 1,3-dichloropropene + 17% Pic (1,3-D+C17) at 327 L·ha–1, and metham sodium (935 L·ha–1). Metham sodium was also applied by drip irrigation as well as enzone (1870 L·ha–1). Dazomet (448 kg·ha–1) was surface applied and incorporated. Pebulate (4.5 kg·ha–1) was incorporated with some treatments. Pic and 1,3-D+C17 treatments provided control of nematodes and soil fungi. With the addition of pebulate, some nutsedge control also was obtained. Tomato fruit yields with 1,3-D+C17 + pebulate and with Pic + pebulate ranged from 86% to 100% of that obtained with MBr treatments. Pest control and crop production were lower with the other treatments than with the above combinations and with MBr. These studies indicate that no one pesticide can provide the broad spectrum control provided by MBr.
Salvadore J. Locascio, James P. Gilreath, D.W. Dickson, Thomas A. Kucharek, J.P. Jones and J.W. Noling
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown to evaluate various chemicals as possible alternatives to methyl bromide soil fumigation. Due to a combination of weeds, nematodes, and soil fungi, the use of a broad-spectrum fumigant has been essential for economical tomato production in Florida. Methyl bromide (MBr) and combinations of MBr with chloropicrin (Pic) are the fumigants of choice for most growers using polyethylene mulch culture. In 1991, MBr was allegedly associated with stratospheric ozone depletion. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has since mandated a phaseout of MBr for soil fumigation in the United States by the year 2001. At three locations in Florida, alternative soil fumigants were evaluated, including soil injected 98% MBr—2% Pic at 450 kg·ha-1, 67% MBr—33% Pic (390 kg·ha-1), Pic (390 kg·ha-1), dichloropropene + 17% Pic (1,3-D + Pic) at 327 L·ha-1, and metam-sodium (935 L·ha-1). Also, metam-sodium and tetrathiocarbonate (1870 L·ha-1) were applied by drip irrigation. Dazomet (450 kg·ha-1) was surface applied and soil incorporated. Pebulate (4.5 kg·ha-1) was soil incorporated with some treatments. Pic and 1,3-D + Pic treatments provided good to moderate control of nematodes and soil fungi except in one of the six studies, in which nematode control with 1,3-D was moderate to poor. Nutsedge densities were suppressed by addition of pebulate. Tomato fruit yields with 1,3-D + Pic + pebulate and with Pic + pebulate at the three sites ranged from 85% to 114%, 60% to 95%, and l01% to 119%, respectively, of that obtained with MBr treatments. Pest control and crop yield were lower with treatments other than the above pebulate-containing or MBr-containing treatments. These studies indicate that no one alternative pesticide can provide the consistent broad-spectrum control provided by MBr. Chemical names used: trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin); 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D); sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate (metam-sodium); sodium tetrathiocarbonate (tetrathiocarbonate); 3,5-dimethyl-(2H)-tetrahydro-l,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (dazomet); S-propyl butyl(ethyl)thiocarbamate (pebulate).
J. M. Schalk, A. Jones, P. D. Dukes and D. R. Seal
The test involved the use of a control (untreated), an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), a granular insecticide (Dyfonate 2.24 Kg ai/ha) in combination with 7 sweetpotato cultivars having varying levels of resistance and susceptibility to soil insect damage. The parasite was applied three times at monthly intervals (67/cm2). The parasite or insecticide did not reduce root injury by soil insects as compared to the control (untreated). Wireworms, Diabrotica sp. and Systena sp. damage in the resistant cultivars Regal, Southern Delite, Excel and Resisto was less than for the susceptible cultivars (SC–1149-19, Jewel and Centennial). Sweetpotato flea beetle resistance was observed for all cultivars except SC–1149-19 which was susceptible. In this test resistant cultivars were more effective in reducing soil insect damage than the biological or chemical control methods.