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- Author or Editor: J.O. Donald x
The genus Linum L. contains ≈200 primarily blue-flowered species, including several ornamentals, yet no reports exist regarding the cut flower potential of this genus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cut flower potential of perennial flax cultivars (L. perenne L. ‘Blue Flax’ and ‘Sapphire’; Expt. 1, 2018) and accessions (L. austriacum L., L. lewisii Pursh., and L. perenne; Expt. 2, 2019), and record traits that will enable breeding and selection for improved cut flower performance. The mean vase life across both cultivars in Expt. 1 was 9.2 days. In Expt. 2, L. perenne had the longest average vase life (9.3 days), followed by L. austriacum (9.1 days) and L. lewisii (8.3 days). The floral preservative (Floralife 300) significantly increased vase life by an average of 1.7 days in Expt. 1, and 1.6 days in Expt. 2, and resulted in a significantly greater number of flowers (≈2x) in both experiments. Significant variation was observed among genotypes for most traits, including vase life (6.2 to 11.3 days) and number of flowers (1.3 to 10.5), highlighting the opportunities for improving the potential of cut flower perennial flax through breeding.
Increased consumer demand for poultry products has created a poultry waste disposal problem. Previous research demonstrated that a growing medium containing 50% composted broiler litter sustained plant growth as well as commercially available alternatives with no objectionable odor. The objective of this research was to determine consumer perceptions to develop a marketing strategy for this product. One-hundred eighty consumers participated in an intercept-survey. Consumers rated fertility of the growing medium as the most important attribute (4.0 on 5.0 scale), followed by mix price (3.8), and color (3.4). “Organic gardening” was important to 82% while the addition of organic material to a growing medium was important to only 56% of the sample. Adding cow manure to a growing medium was desirable to more consumers (65%) than adding horse (39%) or poultry manure (40%). A marketing strategy should include “organic” terminology rather than a specific manure incorporated to deemphasize the negative perception of composted broiler litter.
Diploid zonal geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum) are able to resist attack by small arthropod pests such as the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) when exudate produced by tall glandular trichomes contains a high percentage of ω5-unsaturated anacardic acids. Trichomes of susceptible plants exude primarily saturated anacardic acids. Inbred mite-resistant and -susceptible geraniums were reciprocally crossed and the F1, F2, and backcross generations were examined for anacardic acid composition and trichome density. Selected F2 plants were bioassayed for resistance to two-spotted spider mites. High concentrations of ω5-unsaturated anacardic acids in resistant plants are conditioned by a single dominant allele. We propose that inheritance of tall glandular trichome density can be controlled by a small number of loci (possibly as few as one) exhibiting codominance. F2, with low densities of tall glandular trichomes and producing ω5-unsaturated anacardic acids, displayed effective resistance to two-spotted spider mites as measured by mite mortality and fecundity. A genetic model for the biosynthesis of anacardic acids is proposed.
The effect of physiological maturity at harvest on ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) volatile profiles was studied using ripening response time (in days) to 100 μL·L-1 exogenous ethylene treatment as a tool to separate immature-green from mature-green fruit. Electronic nose (EN) sensor array and gas chromatography (GC) analyses were used to document volatile profile changes in tomatoes that required a 1-, 3-, or 5-day ethylene treatment to reach the breaker stage. EN output analysis using multivariate discriminant and canonical analyses classified intact tomato and whole tomato homogenate samples that required 3 or 5 days of ethylene treatment as significantly different (P < 0.01) from those that required only 1 day. The GC aroma profiles from whole tomato homogenate showed that 1-day fruit had significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of 1-penten-3-one, cis-3-hexenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, and geranylacetone when compared to 5-day fruit. Analysis of excised tomato tissues showed that pericarp (including columnella) produced an average 219% greater concentration of the 16 aroma volatiles quantified by GC when compared to locular gel (442 and 203 μL·L-1, respectively). EN analysis concurred with GC by showing greater average Mahalanobis distance between pericarp tissue groupings when compared to locular gel groupings (78.25 and 12.33 units, respectively). Pericarp tissue from the 5-day ethylene treatment showed significantly lower levels of 1-penten-3-one, trans-2-heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, geranylacetone, and β-ionone compared to the 1- and 3-day treatments, Similarly, locular gel from the 3- and 5-day ethylene treatments had significantly lower levels of 1-penten-3-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane compared to 1-day samples. cis-3-Hexenol in locular gel was the only volatile compound that showed significantly higher levels with increasing ethylene treatment. EN analysis showed greater Mahalanobis distances between 1- and 3-day ethylene samples than between 3- and 5-day ethylene samples (32.09 and 12.90, 24.14 and 6.52, 116.31 and 65.04, and 15.74 and 13.28 units, for intact tomato, whole tomato, pericarp, and locular gel homogenate, respectively).