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  • Author or Editor: J.E. Erwin x
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Hibiscus spp. seed were germinated and placed under different photoperiod treatments at 15, 20, or 25± 2°C. Photoperiod treatments were 9 hr, ambient daylight (≈9 hr) plus night interruption lighting (2200–0200 hr, 2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps), or ambient daylight plus continuous light (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 light from high-pressure sodium lamps). Treatments were terminated at anthesis or after 20 weeks. Variation in flowering form and plant habit were documented and will be discussed. Temperature/photoperiod effects/interactions on plant development will be presented. Species were classified into appropriate photoperiodic groups. Those species with potential as new commercial floriculture crops will be presented.

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Asclepias sp. seed were germinated and placed under different photoperiod treatments at constant 15, 20, or 25 ± 2°C. Photoperiod treatments were 8 hr, 8 hr plus night interruption lighting (2200–0200 hr, 2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps), day extension lighting 1700–2000 HR (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 from highpressure sodium lamps), or daylight plus continuous light (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 light from high-pressure sodium lamps) treatments. Treatments were terminated at anthesis or after 15 weeks. Variation in plant habit and flowering were documented. Also, temperature/photoperiod effects/interactions on plant development are discussed. Lastly, species were classified into appropriate photoperiodic groups and evaluated for potential use as new floriculture crops.

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Our objectives in this study were to identify the flowering response of Kalanchoe spp. to photoperiodic treatments and characterize flowering and vegetative characteristics of flowering plants. Twenty vegetatively propagated Kalanchoe spp. were grown under one of four photoperiodic treatments: 1) short days (SD; 8-h photoperiod) for 16 weeks; 2) night interruption lighting (NI; 2000 to 0200 hr) for 16 weeks; 3) SD for 8 weeks then transferred to NI for 8 weeks; or 4) NI for 8 weeks then transferred to SD for 8 weeks. Kalanchoe beauvardii, K. behariensis, K. fedtschenkoi, K. longiflora, K. marmorata, K. marnieriana, K. streptantha, K. tomentosa, and K. vigueridoi did not flower under any treatment. Kalanchoe laetivirens and K. rosei had minimal flowering when exposed to NI followed by SD, whereas K. pumila had minimal flowering when exposed to SD followed by NI. Kalanchoe glaucescens, K. laciniata, K. manginii, K. nyikae, K. rotundifolia, K. uniflora, and K. velutina flowered when exposed to SD for 8 or 16 weeks, and node number below the inflorescence and days to first open flower for these species increased when NI preceded SD. Kalanchoe millotii flowered under a 16-week SD treatment only. No plants flowered when grown under only NI. We classified K. glaucescens, K. laciniata, K. manginii, K. millotii, K. nyikae, K. rotundifolia, K. uniflora, and K. velutina as obligate SD plants. Flower diameter, total flower number, total color index, shoot length, branch number, and leaf length and width varied among species. Based on these ornamental characteristics, we identified K. glaucescens, K. laciniata, K. manginii, K. nyikae, K. uniflora, and K. velutina as potential ornamental flowering potted plants.

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Our objective in this study was to identify the effects of the photosynthetic daily light integral (DLI) on growth and flowering of six kalanchoe (Kalanchoe) species: Kalanchoe glaucescens, christmas tree plant (K. laciniata), chandelier plant (K. manginii), shovel leaf kalanchoe (K. nyikae), common kalanchoe or nentabos (K. rotundifolia), and velvet leaf kalanchoe (K. velutina). Plants were grown under an 8-hour photoperiod with a DLI of 4.3, 8.6, or 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1. Node numbers below the terminal inflorescence on K. glaucescens, K. manginii, K. nyikae, and K. rotundifolia decreased as the DLI increased, whereas node numbers of K. laciniata and K. velutina were unaffected by DLI. Time to first open flower of K. glaucescens, K. nyikae, and K. rotundifolia was unaffected by the DLI, whereas increasing the DLI from 4.3 to 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1 reduced the time to first open flower of K. laciniata, K. manginii, and K. velutina. Total flowers for all species increased as the DLI exceeded 4.3 mol·m−2·d−1. Shoot heights of K. glaucescens and K. rotundifolia increased as the DLI increased from 4.3 to 8.6 mol·m−2·d−1, whereas shoot height of K. nyikae decreased as the DLI increased from 4.3 to 17.2 mol·m−2·d−1; shoot heights of K. laciniata, K. manginii and K. velutina were unaffected by DLI. Dry weight gain increased for all species as the DLI exceeded 4.3 mol·m−2·d−1.

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Our objectives were to assess the efficacy of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) on stem elongation and branching of 11 kalanchoe (Kalanchoe) species with ornamental characteristics: beauvard’s widow’s-thrill (K. beauvardii), K. glaucescens, lavender scallops or red-leaved kalanchoe (K. fedtschenkoi), K. longiflora, chandelier plant (K. manginii), marnier’s kalanchoe (K. marnieriana), K. millotii, flower dust plant (K. pumila), K. rosei, common kalanchoe or nentabos (K. rotundifolia), and K. streptantha. Foliar spray applications of deionized water, ancymidol (15−60 ppm), benzyladenine (75−300 ppm), chlormequat chloride (750−3000 ppm), daminozide (1250−5000 ppm), ethephon (250−1000 ppm), paclobutrazol (10−40 ppm), or uniconazole (5−20 ppm) were applied 2 weeks after plants were pinched. Stem length at the time of application and 4 weeks after applications and branch number were recorded. While effective chemicals and concentrations varied widely among species, paclobutrazol and uniconazole were identified as providing broad efficacy with respect to inhibition of stem elongation across all 11 species in this study. Additionally, benzyladenine and ethephon increased the number of branches for several species.

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Gomphrena globosa L. `Gnome Pink' and Salvia farinacea Benth. `Victoria Blue' were grown under different photoperiod treatments with day and night temperatures ranging from 15 to 30°C ± 1°C air temperature for 14 weeks after germination or until anthesis. Days to anthesis and leaf number were lowest when plants were grown under 9 hr of daylight and daylight plus 4-hr day extension from 1700–2100 HR (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 from high-pressure sodium lamps) for Gomphrena and Salvia, respectively. Days to anthesis decreased as temperature increased from 15 to 25°C with Gomphrena. Further increasing night temperature from 25 to 30°C delayed flowering and increased leaf number below the first flower of Gomphrena, but hastened flowering of Salvia. Plant height and internode elongation were greatest and least in the night interruption (2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps from 2200–0200 HR) and continuous light (daylight plus 100 μmol·m–2·s–1 from high-pressure sodium lamps) treatments, respectively. Implications of these data with respect to classification of Gomphrena and Salvia flower induction are discussed and revised production schedules are presented.

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Lamium maculatum L. `White Nancy', Scaevola aemula R. `New Blue Wonder', Verbena × hybrida Groenl. & Ruempl. `Tapian Blue', and Calibracoa × hybrida `Cherry Pink' were placed under different photoperiod treatments at constant 15, 20, 25, or 30 ± 2°C air temperature. Photoperiod treatments were 9 hr, ambient daylight (≈8 hr) plus night interruption lighting (2200–0200 hr, 2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps), or ambient daylight plus continuous light (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 light from high-pressure sodium lamps). Data on plant development and rootability of cuttings from each environment was collected. Days to anthesis was lowest when plants were grown under the continuous lighting treatment across species. Verbena and Calibracoa stem elongation was greatest when grown under 30°C under continuous lighting. Species were classified as to photoperiodic flower induction groups. Implications of these data with respect to propagating and finishing these crops are discussed.

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Previous research indicated that Raphanus sativus L. `Chinese Radish Jumbo Scarlet' (CJRS) has an obligate vernalization requirement for flowering and can be vernalized as an imbibed seed in less than 10 days at 6 °C. For these reasons, it serves as an excellent model system for vernalization studies. This study was initiated to gain an understanding of the interaction between cold duration, exogenously applied GA3, and photoperiod on R. sativus CJRS flowering. R. sativus CJRS seeds were sown in 90-mm petri plates on Whatman no. 1 filter paper saturated with plain water or a solution containing 10-5 M or 10-3 M GA3. After germination (i.e., when the radicle was visible), seedlings were either directly transplanted into 10-cm pots and placed in a greenhouse, or transferred to another petri plate onto filter paper saturated with water only and placed in a growth chamber at 6 °C (75 μmol•m-2•s-1 for 8 h) for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 days. Greenhouse conditions were: 20 °C, ambient light (December to January, St. Paul, Minn.) plus 70 μmol•m-2•s-1 supplemental light (high-pressure sodium lamps, 0830-1630 hr), under either an 8-h photoperiod (covered with opaque cloth from 1630-0830 hr), or ambient photoperiod plus night-interruption lighting (2 μmol•m-2•s-1, using incandescent lamps, 2200-0200 HR). Results will be presented.

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Petunia × hybrida Vilm. cvs. `Purple Wave', `Celebrity Burgundy', `Fantasy Pink Morn', and `Dreams Red' were treated with temperature and photoperiod treatments for different lengths of time at different stages of development during the first 6 weeks after germination. Plants were grown with ambient light (≈8–9 hr) at 16°C before and after treatments. Flowering was earliest and leaf number below the first flower was lowest when plants were grown under daylight plus 100 μmol·m–2·s–1 continuous light (high-pressure sodium lamps). Flowering did not occur when plants were grown under short-day treatment (8-hr daylight). Plants grown with night interruption lighting from 2200–0200 HR (2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps) flowered earlier, and with a reduced leaf number compared to plants grown with daylight + a 3-hr day extension from 1700–2000 HR (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 using high-pressure sodium lamps). Plant height and internode elongation were greatest and least in night interruption and continuous light treatments, respectively. `Fantasy Pink Morn' and `Purple Wave' were the earliest and latest cultivars to flower, respectively. Flowering was hastened as temperature increased from 12 to 20°C, but not as temperature was further increased from 20 to 24°C. Branching increased as temperature decreased from 24 to 12°C. Implications of data with respect to classification of petunia flower induction and pre-fi nishing seedlings are discussed.

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Variation in red/far red leaf and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorption by an individual leaf of various ornamental hanging basket species was measured. Red/far red ratios varied from 0.30 to 0.83 for Syngonium podophyllum Schott. and Chlorophytum comosum Thunb. `vittatum', respectively. Reduction in PAR varied from 86% to 61% for those same species, respectively. Estimated state of phytochrome photoequilibria for understory crops when grown under each species was calculated. Cucumis sativus L. seedling hypocotyl elongation was measured under different species to validate hypothesized differences in stem elongation associated with differences in red/far red filtering through individual leaves. Implications with respect to light quality effects on stem elongation and dry weight accumulation of plants grown under different species are discussed.

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